Articles of PRE-COLUMBIAN JEWELRY possibly made by the Zapotec Indians of Mexico who inhabited southern Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, near Monte Alban. They were closely affiliated with the neighbouring Mayan Indians of the Old Empire, c. 317 987, and after c. 1300 with the Toltec Indians who followed them in the region and to whom much of the jewelry of the moNTE ALBAN TREASURE has been attributed.
Literally, sable. The Italian term for FUR JEWELRY
A variety of gemstone of which the common natural colour is reddish brown but stones exhibiting green and several other natural colours are found. However, most marketed specimens are brown stones that have been subjected to HEAT TREATMENT which produces a colourless stone or stones of a wide range of colours, especially blue, bluish-green, purple, deep red, and golden-yellow. When the stones are heated in a closed container, they become colourless or blue; when a flow of air is permitted to enter the container, they become golden-yellow or red. Such converted colours are fairly stable, but sometimes revert in time to greenish- or brownish-blue. Certain coloured varieties have been given special names (e.g. HYACINTH. JACINTH. JARGOON) which have been recommended to be discarded in favour of merely prefixes of the particular colour. The zircon has ADAMANTINE LUSTRE and high colour dispersion, so that a colourless stone often resembles a diamond, but with less FIRE and BRILLIANCE. All zircons are brittle and tend to chip at the facet edges. They are classified as (1) 'high' or 'normal' (which are CRYSTALLINE), (2) 'low' or metamict (which are AMORPHOUS or nearly so), and (3) intermediate (which can be converted by heat to 'high'). Zircons are faceted usually in the MIXED CUT or ZIRCON CUT style. Most zircons are treated and cut in Bangkok, Thailand. Misnomers that have been applied to zircon are 'Siam aquamarine', 'Matara diamond', and 'Ceylon diamond'. Synthetic zircons have been produced but not commercially; a blue SYNTHETIC SPINEL has been miscalled a 'synthetic zircon'.
A style of cutting a transparent gemstone (often used in cutting a ZIRCON, owing to its brilliance) in a manner similar to the BRILLIANT CUT but with an extra row of 16 small FACETS between the PAVILION FACETS and the CUEET.
A TREASURE of articles of gold, silver, and ivory jewelry said to have been found in 1947, between Kurdistan and Azerbaijan, in Iran, in an Assyrian bronze 'container' (later referred to as a 'coffin') and which has been attributed to the late 7th century BC. Many pieces now in the Iran Baston Museum, Tehran, and other leading world-wide museums have been attributed to this source, especially as a consequence of the book, Le Tresor de Ziwiye, written in 1954 by Andre Godard who claimed to have recovered some of the pieces (through a Tehran dealer, Ayoub Rabenou) from the pillaging natives, and also the writings of Roman Ghirshman, a French scholar. However, as the number of pieces now attributed to this source has greatly increased beyond the early reports, the authenticity of many of them has been seriously questioned, particularly by Oscar Muscarella, an American archaeological authority, who has based his contention on the fact tht no example was excavated under controlled methods and that many pieces were looted, or possibly even faked, by local villagers to sell to antiquarians. Some of the museum pieces show motifs, including animals heads, usually ascribed to the Assyrians and the Scythians who inhabited the surrounding territories, thus supporting the claims to authenticity. The Sunday Times (London, 7 May 1978); R. D. Barnett. The Treasure of Ziwiye'. Iraq, xviii (1956), 111-16.
Zundt, Matthias (1498-1586)
A German designer of jewelry, formerly known as the 'Master of 1551'. I-le became a citizen of Nuremberg in 1566 as a recognized goldsmith and lapidary. but is now known for his engraved designs which exemplify the Mannerist style of Nuremberg.
Articles of silver jewelry made by the Zuni Indians of western New Mexico since c. 1870 when they first made silver pieces resembling NAVAJO JEWELRY, but mainly since c. 1890 when they developed the cutting and inlay setting of turquoise. In 1935 they began the making of multicoloured articles, using with small pieces of turquoise some inlays of jet and shell, and their work is now characterized by emphasis on the stones rather than on the silver. They also make fetish necklaces with many small pendants in the form of animals, birds, and grubs. Since the 1940s they have developed the process of decorating with CHANNEL WORK.
Writer – Thames & Hudson