A popular article of Mexican PEASANT JEWELRY in the form of a pendant cross, made only in the town of San Juan Yalalag, east of Oaxaca, from before the 16th century and possibly derived from a Spanish prototype. It is made of cast silver, with hammered and embossed decoration, and from its foot and side arms hang small crosses or other ornaments, e.g. coins, medals, crowns, hearts or figures, with sometimes a winged heart or other design at the intersection of the arms. Some such pendants are up to 15 cm wide. They are usually presented, attached to a necklace, by a mother to her daughter on her wedding day.
A Mexican gold brooch (in the form of a miniature war shield, called a chimalli) that has a central ornament of interlocked symbols made of gold and turquoise mosaic, said to be the only known surviving example of stone inlaid with gold. Projecting from each side of the circular shield are the heads and ends of four horizontal spears (or arrows) and suspended from the feathery cast gold FILIGREE frame are 11 (originally 13) CASCABELES. It has been ascribed to the Mixtec-Zapotec culture (c. 1200 1540) and was found in 1903 on a skeleton near the village of Yanhuitlan in Oaxaca, Mexico. A replica was given by President Aleman to Princess Elizabeth upon her marriage in 1947, and many modern copies have been made, some of silver with a variety of local stones.
A variety of TORTOISE SHELL that is from the plastron (underside) of the turtle. It is of a uniform yellow colour, and is less valuable than the marbled brownish plates from its carapace (upper side). It is preferred for women's hair combs, especially in Spain and Japan, to contrast with dark hair.
An ALLOY of cow with SILVER and copper, with the copper in increased proportions producing a reddish gold. Yellow gold is the type most frequently used.
Yttrium aluminum garnet
A SYNTHETIC GEMSTONE that has a structure the same as that of a GARNET, but has no chemical counterpart in nature. It has been produced since 1969 in a range of colours, but especially as a colourless stone to simulate a diamond; but it has much more FIRE. A comparable synthetic stone is 'yttrium iron-garnet' which is opaque, black, and metallic, examples of which have been polished to imitate HEMATITE. without its red streak. These are usually called, respectively, by the trade-names YAG and YIG; other trade-names are, in England, Diamolaire and Cirolitc and, in the United States, Diamonair.
Writer – Thames & Hudson