Saturday, 30 March 2013

Wonderfull Feminine Ornament

SURYAKANTHI KATHOLA {Sunflower earring) Kerala; 19th century Outer diam: 16 cm Courtesy Musee Barbier-Mueller. Geneva (2504 -126 a&b) these enormous gold solar symbols were worn suspended over the ears, and were intended to harness the powerful energies of the sun.SHAFTS OF THE SUN

Early sculptures demonstrate that car ornaments were an important constituent of Indian female attire. Three basic shapes are seen: the discal, the amphora and the reel type. From the ubiquitous simple flower heads worn like buttons on the ear lobes and the round spiked forms manifesting solar symbolism (245 ), to large and elaborate pendant forms (247), the range and variety of ear ornaments in India is unparalleled anywhere else in the world. In the rural areas particularly, an extraordinary range and variety of forms and designs are still seen. More sophisticated and complex styles developed over the centuries: the karnaphul (ear flower), the pipal pathi (pipal leaf), Bali (circlet with a pearl), champakali (jasmine bud, worn on the shell of the ear) are only a few of the infinite number of forms in evidence even today in different regions of the country.

DIJHAHARU (ear studs) Kashmir; 19th century the gold and turquoise pendants of earrings worn by Kashmiri Pandit Brahmin women the forms correspond to the mystical wegu figure traced on the ground at the birth of a child.
Until fairly recently, the ears of both male and Female child were pierced. To The married woman, the ear ornament is auspicious; bare ear lobes signalled widowhood. Additionally a woman’s wealth was conspicuously visible and the ear ornament became ca statement of her status and power; elongated ear-lobes were considered a sign of beauty and wealth the longer the lobe, the greater a woman’s wealth. By appending ornaments to almost every part of the ear, the woman also ensured a continuous state of mental and physical well-being. Recent studies have identified the ear as a microcosm of the entire body the point of vision in acupuncture is situated in the centre of the lobe.

BALE JHABBEDAR (ear ornaments) North India late 19th century Gold enamelled earrings set with diamonds the crescent and fish-shaped pendants are fringed with pearls.Foreign travellers were fascinated by the sight of elongated ear lobes and have recorded their astonishment. Travelling in Kerala, Edward Terry commented on this practice among gentile women The flaps or nether part of their ears are bored, when they are young, which hole daily stretched and made wider by things kept in it for that purpose, at last becomes so large, that it will hold a Ring (I dare boldly say, as large as a little saucer) made hollow on the sides for the flesh to rest in. Amusing stories of ear holes the size of large eggs and plates, through which many a bold individual attempted to pass his arms, abound.

In south India, the leaves of the date palm were tightly rolled into cylinders, their thickness gradually increased until the desired length of the hole was achieved. The dried leaves expanded when wet, resulting in a gentle and gradual dilation. Sticks from the branches of the neem tree were similarly used, harnessing the natural anaesthetic and antibiotic properties of neem. The process of dilation commenced when a girl child was merely a few days old, culminating when the desired length had been attained. The practice was not restricted to the lower castes and Thurston narrates how young Maravan princesses in Madurai used to hang on to their ears when they ran races in the garden, lest the heavy ornaments should rend asunder the filamentous ear lobes.

KARNAPHUL JHUMKA (ear ornaments) South India; late l9 early 20th centuryThe simple daily wear thodu or twin of south India is usually in a flower head form  suspended tassels or jimki (254) take the form of bells with flower tops. Perhaps the most enigmatic south Indian ear jewels are the abstract, geometric wmt1 a forms of the thandatti. Variously known as modicum thandatti, pambadam and nagapadam they are worn exclusively by women of the Velalar Nadar class in Tamil Nadu and neighboring Kerala, in areas around Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Tirunelvelly and Kanyakumari. The basic form juxtaposing squares, rectangles and triangles is constant, different names identifying variations in design details. The simplest is referred to as the mudichu or just a knot the thandatti is in a step pyramid form while the one bearing a Minuscule snake face is termed the pambadam or nagapadam .

While the origin of both the form and name of the thandatti are now lost, common belief attributes them to a stylized version of the snake earring worn by lord Shiva, when as Nataraja he danced the tamiava, the cosmic dance of creation. Litymological analysis of the terms perhaps offers some interesting solutions to the vexing problem of the origin of these startlingly abstract and contemporary forms. An Iudiclau is fairly simple, the name a mere translation of the knotted form of the jewel. Thandatti the stem of the sandalwood or strychnine tree originating from the custom of wearing pieces of wood to stretch the ear lobes These earrings, however, are not common all over south India. Similarly, the olai thodu, simply known as olai, derives its name from the form of the pmmmolm', leaves of the date palm rolled and placed in the ear lobes to elongate the lobes. Sometimes these earrings can be enormously large, but fashioned from thin sheet gold over 1 Inc core, they tend to be fairly light.

KOPPU (ear studs) Kerala 19th century Sheet gold stamped in relief with an image of goddess Lakshmi in the centre.In Kerala, women dilated their car lobes by inserting, large, heavy, leaden rings. Ear ornaments known as the takka or twin was then inserted. The cordon of the ear lobe fits into the groove on the barrel of the earring. These simple, round disc-shaped ornaments are probably a derivation of the ancient tatankachara found in archaeological sites all over the country. Fashioned From a variety of materials, these jewels ranged from simple small studs to large discs of varying thickness. They were staple forms of adornment for rich and poor. Those that were crafted in sheet gold ranged from the elegantly simple to elaborately worked repousse pieces. Sculptures scattered in all parts of the country stand testimony to the fact that these disc-all forms have come down in an unbroken continuity. One more area to safeguard and display one’s wealth without much fear of loss or theft, the Indian woman’s bejewelled ear offers a sight that prompted the exclamation European ladies are content with one appendage to each ear while the females of Hindustan think it impossible to have too many.

 Writer-Usha R. Bala Krishnan & Meera Sushil Kumar

Tuesday, 26 March 2013

Attractive Feminine Ornament

NISKA (necklace of coins - front and reverse) North India; 19th century As statements of wealth, necklaces of coins trace their antiquity to the Mahabharata. While gold coins are set into one side of this necklace, the reverse comprises kundan-set units of rubies and emeralds encircled with pearls.
Within this temple Sl1iva and his consort Parvati are depicted seated on their vehicle, the bull. The claw-like pieces ranged on either side are embellished with artistic details typical of the architecture of Chettinad. They are believed to be stylized simulations of crab claws and shell forms, derived from the shells that the Chettiars wore as jewellery when they were still a simple sea faring coastal community. The kali-tiru is an emblem of their religion, a proclamation of their early simple origins an example offline craftsmanship, and in its sheer size and weight a statement of the wealth and prosperity of the Chettiars. Individual examples vary in size and weight and are worn only on the wedding day and again on the auspicious occasion of the 60th birthday of the husband. For everyday use, a smaller variation is used.

The Kali-tiru has now become a fashion statement. Taken out of its original context, it is Among the Nairs of Kerala, the term tali retain its ancient connotation and are used synonymously with main referring to a necklace there being no necessary connection with marriage. Varieties include neck ornaments such as arumpumani, kumitali and putali.

SURYAKANTHI KATHOLA {Sunflower earring) Kerala; 19th century Outer diam: 16 cm Courtesy Musee Barbier-Mueller. Geneva (2504 -126 a&b) these enormous gold solar symbols were worn suspended over the ears, and were intended to harness the powerful energies of the sun.The oldest and most famous ornament of the Nair women is the nagapada tali or the cobra hood necklace. Nair women believe that the nagapada tali were given to them by the gods to instill in them the virtues of patience and calmness.

The diamond nagapada tali 222 are of royal origin since diamonds were the preserve of the

The variety and range of neck ornaments among the various regions of India is vast oftenhidden within the voluminous flods of the sari tiny elements peek out providing a tantalizing glimpse of the whole. Among the many kinds of ornaments that were popular in the Chola period and are mentioned in temple inscriptions, the karai or tiruk-karai, a golden neck collar, the ekavali, a single strand of pearls corals and gemstone the kantha tudar, a necklace of chains with elaborate clasps at the end the kantha- nan a jewelled necklace set with rubies, emeralds, sapphires and diamonds, the simple golden chain or kanthika occur with repeated frequency. None of these terms survive and forms have undergone evolutionary changes.

aristocracy. Each cobra hood form is surmounted by a miniature replica of a temple gopuram typical in Kerala jewellery. The commonly used nagapada tali is usually composed of pieces of green glass simulating emeralds, cut in the shape of snake hoods, and embellished with rubies or diamonds. Nowhere in India is the snake adapted into jewellery forms as much as in Kerala. The extensive forest cover in the area and the consequent presence of snake probably resulted in their veneration. Since a snake never attacks unless provoked, It is endowed with qualities of serenity and of contentment, together with good luck, prosperity, fertility, progeny and good harvest.

casually worn by women all over India as just an elaborate necklace. Nevertheless, throughout south India, the sanctity of the tiru mangalyam remains unaltered. The custom of wearing tali has permeated other religious denominations as well. Among the Syrian Christians of Kerala, for example, the wedding ring has been replaced by tali in the form of a cross; converted Christians superimpose the cross on the traditional tali form.

A VELLALAR WOMAN Tamil Nadu, Madurai; contemporary the abstract thandatti ear jewels are a favourite with women of this community.Forms from nature constitute the principal elements of design - flowers, buds, fruits and leaves. The manga malai (229, 230), literally a necklace of mangoes, is uniquely south Indian and its antiquity can be traced to the Chola period or even earlier. In Hindu mythology, the mango is a wish-fulfilling tree and a symbol of love. Individual mango-shaped pendants set with gems, usually cabuchon rubies, with flower head intersections and elaborate fan shaped pendants (padakkams) are strung together to form the fabulous mange malai. In its most traditional form, the necklace extends down to the waist, but most surviving examples are less than half the original length, having been broken up for equitable distribution of wealth among daughters and sons. The kasu malai, kanchanamala, or rupaiya km a garland of coins, is the most striking example of ornaments serving as instruments of savings The antiquity of the jewel can be traced to the Rig Veda, where the term niska might be the earliest reference to this type of ornament. Niska probably refers to some form of monetary exchange and is used in connection with a garland of coins made of both gold and silver. The Mahabharata too mentions it as an ornament for both men and women around piece of gold, tied at the neck in a string or chain, at times several such pieces strung into a necklet.

From its description, the niska was evidently the forerunner of the popular kasu malai or rupaiya him worn even today all over India. The ornament probably became popular during the period of Roman trade, when Roman gold coins were used to pay for gems. The coins that came from or European trading partners too were similarly employed. In the l9th century, it became very fashionable to string English guineas in this manner. At around this time, coins bearing images of the various Hindu gods and goddesses were specially struck from dies, to be worn in this fashion . the purity of the gold and the intrinsic value of the gold coin made this ornament a popular instrument of savings.
Writer-Usha R. Bala Krishnan & Meera Sushil Kumar

Monday, 25 March 2013

Beautiful Feminine Ornament

NECKLACE OF COINS Andhra Pradesh 19th century a typical Muslim ornament in the area, each gold coin is stamped with a male face.Interestingly, almost two millennia earlier, Bharata's Natyashastra, a treatise on the dramatic arts written circa SOO B.C., listed an array of ornaments for women remarkably similar to Manucci description. Recommending the jewellery appropriate to women's costumes, the author provides an extensive categorisation of jewellery including varieties of ornaments for the ears, forehead, forearm, upper arm, waist, feet, fingers and neck.

In no other culture do we find a parallel to the meticulous classification of gems and jewellery according to shape, size, style and design as enumerated in ancient India. Accompanied by an extensive lexicon of specific terms, this unique feature indicates the importance of jewellery in Indian tradition an importance going far beyond bodily adornment. Over the centuries much oldie terminology changed, but essential types, their usage and designs reveal a remarkable continuity in conventions established early in Indian history.

MOHAPPU SANGlLl (necklace) Tamil Nadu; early 20th century A popular ornament in South India, usually of three to five strands of gold chains, this piece has ruby and emerald beads interspersed with pearls. The gold gem-set centre-piece mohappu is worn lust below the right collar bone, so that it is clearly visible over the edge of the sari.In the absence of extant specimens, a thorough study of the earlier terminology is especially informative about design styles, usage and sources of design inspiration. Traditional Indian jewellery did not go by merely generic terms. A necklace, for example, was not just a Liar. The semantic appendage to the generic term was a cryptic description of it. The earlier use of the term ekavali, for instance, immediately denoted a single strand of pearls. With a gem in the centre it became a yasti. Interspersed with gold and gems the necklace was given a special name, ratnavali. The lingua franca of Indian jewellery is based on etymological derivations of 206 the design, material or purpose of the ornament and is understood by craftsmen and clients. Many of the classical terms are now obsolete, and have been replaced by more colloquial terminology. 

Some of the Carlier types of adornment such as girdles and ornaments for the hair like the chudamani are also now part of jewellery history. But prevailing styles in earrings, necklaces bangles and bracelets echo an ancient lineage in their shapes motifs, and even the techniques of embellishment. The jewels enclosing the wrists of aristocratic ladies depicted in Shunga period terracottas are precursors of the gajredar bangris and pahunchis of later date. Stylistic continuity is also visible in necklaces and earrings. The phalakahar, described in Kautiliya's Arthashastra as a multiple strand necklace of gold beads with five or seven gemmed spacers is still popular with Indian women in almost the same composition as depicted on the sculpted figures at Bharhut and Sanchi as well as in the paintings of Ajanta.

HASLI (rigid necklace) North India 19th century Florets of rose-cut diamonds on an opaque blue enamel ground terminating in bunches of seed pearls create a soft, lace-like effect in this jewel  perhaps meant for a young girl. Ornaments for children were no less splendid then those made for men, women and the gods.Unique jewellery forms are an intrinsic aspect of Indian culture. On the top of her head, the woman wore elaborate jewels that covered the parting of her hair and hung down over her forehead; her long sinuous plait was encased in sheets of gold engraved and worked in repousse, set with precious stones her ears were rarely left bare, since to do so was considered most inauspicious. A single necklace rarely sufficed from collars clasped high around the throat, magnificent gems, and chains cascaded down to her waist in a rich variety of designs. Slender wrists were clasped with gold, elegant peacocks and curving malmms adorned her arms; gold sheets worked in repousse and gem set with Dancing swans and gay parrots, and frowning lrirtimuklm clasps hugged her waist. From the crown of the head to the tips of the toes, jewellery whose inspiration lay in prototypes from nature, was conceived and crafted to decorate, enhance and protect.

Underlying this unbroken aesthetic tradition is the fundamental continuity in The attitudes of the feminine wearer Her love for the beautiful and overriding concern for security perpetuated a unique jewellery tradition reflected in the many forms and Styles that evolved.


HASLI (rigid necklace) North India 19th century this version of the hasli is set in gold with rubies and emeralds and fringed with a row of inverted crescent moon units.To the women of India, jewellery has been auspicious. There is no more poignant picture than that of an Indian woman divesting herself of all her jewels on the death of her husband. In a moving ceremony, her bangles are broken and the marriage tokens stripped from around her neck before the dead body of her husband is taken away. Ornaments once loved for their beauty, acquired for their value, used as protectors against evil and as symbols of health, wealth and happiness, are now shunned. On the other hand, a woman predeceasing her husband is considered very fortunate. Her body is decked in bridal finery, adorned with all her ornaments, and she is revered as an icon of the perfect wife.

The antiquity of the convention of tying a tiru mangalyam or a 1tzz1nflrIltzs'1tt2'a, the auspicious emblem or cord, on the wedding day is indeterminable. There is no mention of marriage tokens in the list of ceremonies prescribed in the Gribya Sutras (Texts containing rules prescribing the rites for a householder) the custom appears to have become popular only after the 6th century A.D. Prior to this, leanlmmz bnndlamza, the tying of a yellow protective cord around the wrist of bride and groom, signalled the commitment to marriage. Perhaps the use of such emblems is more to do with convention than religion. Both men and women in ancient India wore the yagnopavita, sacred thread, as a mark of their initiation into student ship. When the custom went out of practice for women, the sacred thread was adapted to the tiru mangalyam to sanctify a woman’s married status and accord her social recognition. The yagnopavita cord is composed of three threads, each of nine strands of well twisted yellow cotton. The three cords were tied together by a knot called lrmhmagranthi, symbolizing Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. In south India, the tiru mangalyam cord is similarly made, and tied with three knots around the neck of the bride, invoking the blessings of the Trinity. Forms derived from nature were suspended on these cords functioning as symbols of the alliance between man and woman.To these were added other emblems which were associated with amuletic, curative, Protective and procreative properties.

NECKLACE Western India; late 19th century Private collection The claw-like silver setting (pachchikam) encases uncut semi-precious stones in a western design.In Tamil Nadu, the tiru-mangalyam is also known simply as tab‘. The term refers to a species of palm tree, or a grove of palms. Though liter 1ry evidence V is neither consistent nor conclusive on the origin of the term, even today among the Gonds, Savaras, and Munda tribes, the bridegroom ties a string with a palm leaf around the bride’s neck. In early Sangam literature, any ornament tied around the neck whose purpose was not purely decorative was referred to as tali. There are references to various kinds of tali worn by men, women and children. A necklace strung with the emblems of Vishnu was known as the aimpadai-tali. Variations such as amai-tali bearing the emblem of a tortoise tali- kolundu with a bunch of lower buds variven-tali with ribbed cowry shells sin-mani-tali made of small beads and manicka-tali jewelled are all mentioned in ancient literature. Tiger’s claws or tiger’s teeth worn as emblems of courage and as trophies of victory were referred to as pulippal tali. It is from the basic ‘M’ Form of two tiger’s claws placed adjacent to each other, their tips curving out, that the modern stylized forms of the tali tokens perhaps derive their shape. Images and symbols corresponding to caste, community and religious sect are rendered on the front or reverse of this basic form.
KASU MALAI (necklace of coins) South India; late 19th century A variation of the kasu malai, this example is made with gold coins specially stamped with images of the gods Ram, Site and Hanuman on one side and the inscription 'Sri ram, jaya ram, jaya, jaya ram on the reverse.
The tali of the Brahmins is the simplest a Shaivite Brahmin tali. bears representations of the lingam at or the three horizontal lines of the 9 i caste mark Vaishnava Brahmin tokens have three vertical lines of the Vaishnava caste mark or the conch and wheel symbols of Vishnu together with non denominational emblems like the basil or basil plant the sun and A moon or the kalpavriksha the wish fulfilling g tree. The more elaborate ones are gem-set and decorated with design details beyond those prescribed. But the tali form of the non Brahmins is complex stylized emblems and veritable works of art. Generally known as Pillayar tali and categorized as periya tali or big tali and chinna. Tali or small tali the stylized form of Lord Ganesha Pillayar is superimposed on to the basic shape together with elements like the bottu representation of the female breast symbolizing motherhood. The Kongu velalars a community hailing from Kongu Nadu the regions of Coimbatore Salem and Tiruchchirappalli wear tali that bears a representation of an animal diety superimposed on to the basic form. Much of the original meaning of these forms is now lost and tales are all that are left to create a hypothesis.

Of the many different forms of marriage necklaces and tokens, none is more splendid than the kali-tiru (auspicious neck ornament) of the Nattukottai Chettiars of Chettinad in Tamil Nadu the ornament is unique to this merchant community who are believed to have originally come from the flourishing ancient sea port of Puhar (Kaveripattinam) Their patron deity is Lord Shiva and their most important shrine the Nataraja temple at Chidambaram in south India The necklace is a magnificent ornament, made up of two rows of horizontal beads interspersed with elaborate pendant pieces and an ornate tali pendant in the centre. The traditional M shaped centre piece of the necklace features a miniature replica of the temple at Chidambaram worked in repousse. 

Writer - Usha R. Bala Krishnan & Meera Sushil Kumar

Friday, 22 March 2013

Introduction to Feminine Ornament

The Impulse to Andorn

PADAKKAM (pendant) South lndia 19th century H: 15cms W: 13 cmsThe Indian woman is rarely seen without jewellery, even if it is just a Pair of lac bangles, in keeping with the iconography of physical Appeal. Inextricably knit up with the wearer perceived almost as an extension of her ornaments indicated much more than the obvious messages of marital Status, rank and wealth to the perceptive they spoke of her moods, her desires, and Offered glimpses of her intimate self.

The idiom of ornament was used extensively and evocatively in Indian literature And the visual arts In As aghosa’s Buddhncharita the excitement of women eager to Snatch a glimpse of Prince Siddhartha is echoed by their ornaments

The noise of their girdles and the jingling of their anklets as they rushed to the windows resounded on the staircases and roofs of mansions frightening the flocks of birds this lived in the house.

CHAMPAKALI (necklace) North lndia 19thcentury Pendants shaped like champa flower buds.
Having reached there, they were restlessly swaying about in the windows crowded together in the mutual press, with their earrings polished by the continual collision And their ornaments all jingling

The absence of ornaments is no less telling. Hearing of Siddhartl1a’s
Renunciation the same women choose to express their dejection by remaining unadorned

Their feet were unstained by red and UN decked by anklets their faces without earrings with the ears left to their native simplicity. The loins of these ladies were no more circled by a girdle Nor their bosoms were any more adorned with the pearls Of the necklaces as if they had been robbed.

The languorous heroine decking herself with ornaments in anticipation of her

Lover’s arrival has been a favourite theme with artists and writers of the .Shringara tradition.

Radha’s friends in the well known love poem I’adam1li urge her to go to Krishna, letting her jewels echo her inner longings:

GULUBAND (necklace - front and reverse) North India; 19th centuryNow throw away your shyness, let your girdle tinkle merrily and go ahead To meet your Lord. March, and let the jingle of your bangles Proclaim your approach to your Lord.

On the other hand, as the vipralabdha nayika, the rejected heroine, Radha discards her jewels in a mixture of anger and despair Shatter my bangles of shell, take of my fine array, And break my necklace of fine pearls, If my dear will forsake me, what is the use of jewels? Cast them all in the waves of the jamuna

GULUBAND (necklace - front and reverse) North India; 19th century
The unusual emphasis on feminine adornment in Indian society went beyond its allure. Ornaments functioned as auspicious symbols of marital status. To be devoid of Ornaments signalled widowhood or formal renunciation of worldly life. A wife gaily adorned her whole house is embellished but if she be destitute of ornament all will be

Deprived of decoration, says Manu the lawgiver. While the Prescribed set of ornaments associated with marriage varies in different parts of India and among different Communities, the tilelm, math, rim mavzgtmlyam or mmgmlarutra, ktmleana, and bit/Jlma were all considered to be representative of marital felicity, Saulvlmghya.

Traditionally, every bride was given Set of jewels. The basic prerequisite were a pair on I earrings, a chain a necklace and bangles. Rich or Be poor, this minimum did not vary. Ornaments beyond The prescribed set tended to be larger, more handsome And distinct, depending on the affluence of the family.

GAJJE ADDlGAl (necklace) South India; 19th century he bell-like forms edging this gold ornament set I with rubies are akin to the anklet-bells worn by elephants (gajje). The necklace is also referred to as shilangu (anklet) addigai.According to the Atharvaveda, concluding the marriage ceremonies, the bride's father gives her away with the utterance I give away this girl adorned with gold ornaments to you. Such social and cultural norms associated with jewellery were rooted in considerations of a purely pragmatic nature. According to the Manusmriti, 202 the oldest Hindu treatise on social law, a woman's jewels are her stridban, the only property legally and irrevocably hers. The law book there for enjoined the obligatory gift of certain jewels as bridal dowry.

As their only insurance in a male oriented, unsupportive social structure, and against the vicissitudes of time and old age, a woman tended to hold on to as much as possible and in earlier times safeguard it on her person. Women weighed down with ornaments are still not an uncommon sight in rural India, nor is the scene of a woman negotiating the price of a piece of jewellery with the local moneylender to tide over difficult times.

A LADY By Raja Ravi Varma Oil on canvas 48.5 X 3245 cm Courtesy Sotheby's A traditionally dressed and ornamented lady from Kerala.
The role of jewellery as a financial instrument among many communities is deeply entrenched in a centuries-old pattern of family ties and relationships. Marriage between first cousins was encouraged amongst the Chettiars of south India to ensure the retention of wealth within the family. As symbols of wealth and status, the use of ornaments in India through the ages was unparalleled.

Niccolao Manucci, the Italian physician at Aurangzeb's court, recounts his difficulties when trying to feel the pulse of ornament-laden women in the Mughal zenana: "At their wrists are very rich bracelets, or bands of pearls, which usually go round nine or twelve times. In this way they often have the place for feeling the pulse so covered up that I found it difficult to put my hand upon it. In addition they are girdled with a sort of waist belt of gold two fingers wide, covered all over with great stones. At the ends of the strings which tie up their drawers there are bunches of pearls made up of fifteen strings five fingers in length. Round the bottom of their legs are valuable metal rings or strings of costly pearls.

Writer - Usha R Bala Krishan