Wednesday, 13 February 2013

Introduction to Castellani and Giuliano Jewelers

a selection of gold-mounted mosaic jewels by Castellani showing various influences Byzantine, Roman, early Christian, medieval. Christie's, Geneva
Like William Morris we live in an age where King Shoddy reigns. A century ago craftsmanship and quality had declined in the wake of increased mechanization, and exactly the same is true today. Even our individualism is threatened by the sterility of the chainstore and hypermarket. It is easy to recognize as our own the aesthetic dilemma of the 19th century, but unlike our forebears we lack even the inspiration to react against it. Patronage of the arts is in the doldrums and it is therefore not surprising that we turn to the past with unprecedented enthusiasm. Almost without exception, the artists and craftsmen of the 19th century thought there was no other option open to them but to look back, and today a new spirit of revivalism thrives.

 In 1863 William Burges said, "There is an old proverb which says 'when things are at their worst they begin to mend'; and certain nothing could be worse than the design of our jewellery some six years ago, for it is only since our workmen have taken to imitating the beautiful articles found in the tombs of Etruria and Magna Graecia that an artist can pass a jeweler’s shop without shutting his eyes" This return to the antique in jewelry design can be attributed in the main to the Castellani family of Rome.

A circular gold brooch by Casteilani with the popular motif of a snake in the grass. Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia, Rome.Fortunato Pio Castellani (1794-1865) had, by the age of 20, embarked on a career as a manufacturing goldsmith, and the business which he founded on the ground floor of the Palazzo Raggi in the Via del Corso was devoted for the most part to the manufacture of ornaments in precious metal but also dealt in works of art. 

It was later to become the venue of a rich English "milord" who, whenever he heard that Castellani had acquired a picture, came round to the premises "cheque book in hand" and refused to leave without purchasing it. This procedure was, we are told, irritating to Castellani who would have preferred a little more time to commune with his latest discovery.

The jewelry manufactured by Castellani in the first few years was in the contemporary French, English and Swiss taste and was greatly influenced by a Russian craftsman called Zwerner who worked in Rome in the 1830s. Russian jewelry of the period is characterized by a sumptuous display of precious stones in tight and neatly executed openwork settings. Rome had never been considered a centre for this sort of jewelry and it seems unlikely that the traditional pieces produced by Fortunato Pio Castellani could successfully compete with similar ornaments available in St Petersburg, Geneva, Paris and London. Regrettably, none of this early jewelry has been traced, possibly because of its derivative nature but more probably because it did not bear any one of the distinctive monograms of crossed C's found on later Castellani works.

A parure in the Italian medieval taste, consisting of a coronet, necklace, brooch and earrings, set with cabochon rubies, sapphires and pearls and decorated with filigree. The crosses can be detached from the coronet to form separate brooches. The ensemble was created for the wedding of Princess Margareta of Prussia (1892).
In the mid-1820s Fortunato was lucky enough to win the friendship of the famous archaeologist Michelangelo Caetani, who later became the Duke of Sermoneta (1804-82). He was a man of great erudition, a patron of considerable private fortune and one whose wide-ranging and important connections throughout Europe and America must have been invaluable to Castellani's growing business. 

Among his cultivated circle of friends were Rossini, Chateau briand, Stendhal, Liszt, Balzac and Witte. The relationship with Caetani was to prove one of the strongest influences on the Castellani firm. It was he who in 1851 encouraged Fortunato Pio and his two sons Alessandro (1823-83) and Augusto (1829-1914) to abandon jewelry of foreign inspiration and concentrate on antique themes; but more importantly he remained a consistent and generous mentor for the rest of his life. Alessandro Castellani was later to acknowledge the Duke as a man "whom we consider as our master, and as a most certain and learned guide in the whole art of design". It was under Caetani's close influence that the revival of Italian and Greek jewelry was given the name Italian Archaeological Jewelry.

Alessandro Castellani was unable to participate in the day-to-day running of the firm in the same way as his brother Augusto since he had lost an arm in a hunting accident when quite young. This misfortune meant that he was precluded from any practical involvement with the workshop which went beyond the designing of jewelry. His main role was to continue the tradition of the firm by dealing in the finest antiques and works of art, and the trade was to provide him with a livelihood and a consuming interest for the rest of his days. Unfortunately, Alessandro's mental health was somewhat finely balanced and was ultimately pitched into disorder as a result of being imprisoned by the Papal Government. 

A gold pendent based on a Campana jewel. This version, which is one of several, is in the form of the head of Bacchus, adorned by a garland of vines. A small souvenir can be kept in the compartment at the rear. The political stance of the Castellani family was essentially liberal and Alessandro's life was to be moulded by his strict adherence to these ideals. His membership of the commission set up for the selection of Government employees during the Roman Republic of 1849 led to his arrest and that of his brother when the Papal Government was restored in the same year. They were released as a result of the father's reputation and his generosity in paying the fines. Alessandro, however, was not easily deterred and continued to cultivate the friendship of the exiled Republican Giuseppe Mazzini. In August 1853 a revolutionary plot was uncovered and numerous arrests were made.

 Alessandro was imprisoned in the Castel Sant' Angelo, and the combination of interrogation and fevers he contracted there drove him temporarily insane. In 1856 he was released. Three years later, however, the Papal Government presented him with an ultimatum: to accept banishment or return to prison and judicial interrogation. Not surprisingly, he fled to Paris in June 1860 and took an apartment in the Rue Taitbout. The premises he was subsequently to open at 85 Champs-Elysées were to form the core of the Archaeological School of Jewelry in France. Circumstances had decreed that Alessandro was to become foreign ambassador of the firm as well as of the aesthetic disciplines in which it so fervently believed.

While in Paris, Alessandro gave a lecture called "Memoire sur la Joaillerie chez les Anciens" to the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Letters.

A gold box in the Roman taste. A 19th-century green jasper cameo depicting Daphne and Apollo is set into the lid, while the base is set with a panel of translucent, rust-coloured agate. In gold letters on an enameled white background runs the following Latin inscription.
The English version, entitled "Antique Jewellery and its Revival", was published to complement the Castellani display at the 1862 International Exhibition in London. It took the form of a brief history of the firm, its aims, inspirations and relentless pursuit of those classical goldsmiths' techniques, which were such an enigma to the 19th-century jeweler. 

Among them was the method used by the Greeks and Etruscans to decorate the surface of gold with tiny globes or granules so fine that they appear to the naked eye like the finest dusting or frosting. Furthermore, the delicacy of the filigree which is so often applied to Classical jewelry seemed to the Castellani to be virtually impossible to achieve. This extraordinary facility with materials coupled with an ability to achieve a bold and tasteful effect made the Greeks and Etruscans peerless in the Castellani family's estimation.

They had assembled their own collection of ancient jewelry, which was freely exhibited at the premises to customers and scholars, and they had also been intimately involved in Cavaliere Campana's collection of some 929 ornaments in gold and silver. Thus the Castellani were not short of prototypes on which to base the pastiches they made under the direction of Caetani. They offered these for sale to the enormous number of tourists who visited Rome every year. Although the Castellani believed that Etruscan and Greek jewelry was aesthetically and technically supreme, their pastiches were not limited to these two groups alone. Recognizing the dramatic qualities of Roman jewelry, the firm used Roman sources from time to time despite the reservations they were so quick to voice.

A parure adorned with pearls, rubies, drop-shaped emeralds and late 16th-century onyx cameos (although the gem in the pendant to the necklace may be modern), mounted in enameled gold.
The Etruscans and inhabitants of Magna Graecia attained the highest perfection in the early years of Rome; but with the rise of the imperial power the art of jewellery lost its beauty, as has happened in all times to those arts which flourish in the free life of nations, but languish and die when liberty grows weak and disappears. 

The excavations of Pompeii have brought to light works of the Greco-Roman period inferior to those found in Etruria and Magna Graecia. And although in the Pompeian ornaments we find sometimes the elegant forms of more remote antiquity, showing the well-known persistence of archaic types, still the workmanship is in every way inferior. From this we deduce that the decay had already begun; and that the gold ornaments of imperial Rome, both in design and execution, fell short of those remote periods.

Similar scorn was poured on the jewelry of the early Christians of the Eternal City, who, being chiefly poor men and taught to despise all external magnificence and show, had neither means nor desire to possess personal ornaments or costly vessels for sacred use. 

A granulated gold necklace by ALFREDO CASTELLANI set with onciim and modem carnelian scarabs. Within the necklace, a circular micro mosaic of a parrot, mounted in gold by' Castellani as a brooch, the border of which is decorated with cloisonné enamel.
Their altars were adorned with terracotta and bronze; the bread of the Eucharist ceremony, and the relics of the dead, were enclosed in copper lockets; and the few jewels found in the catacombs of Rome, similar in form to those of the Dark Ages, are so deficient in art that they can only be compared with the roughest works of the primitive eras. Of this kind are the medallions, rings and fibulae, used by them to distinguish each other in days of persecution and danger, and on which the various Christian symbols are generally represented in a very inartistic manner.

Despite these reservations, the Castellani family was aware that the majority of visitors to Rome were deeply devout Christians making something of a pilgrimage. 

Nothing would give them greater pleasure than to bring back a jewel decorated with an early Christian symbol or a Byzantine-style mosaic. Unlike the other jewelers working in Rome in the second half of the 19th century, the Castellani exploited rather than suppressed the severity of these religious jewels; as a result they have a monumentality simply not found in the work of other goldsmiths. Alessandro Castellani had only harsh words for the jewelry of the 16th and particularly the 17th century:

Two pendants by CARLO and ARTHUR GIULIANO: left, a gold Renaissance-style locket of Pegasus drinking at the fountain of Hippocrene (1901). The enameled locket, set with pearls, garnets and rubies, was made for Katherine Bradley to contain a miniature of Edith Cooper. It is not certain whether the Italian masters of the art of jewellery of the 1-5th century had lost, or disregarded, all the traditions of the ancient schools, or whether, guided by their native genius, they labored to create new methods of working in this art, harmonizing it with the forms under which the sister arts were reviving. . . . These masters at all events studied and used at their discretion methods totally different from the ancient. They availed themselves of the punch, burin and chisel; of enamels, nielli, cast ornaments and figures, and precious stones. And their best works are those in which these precious materials are combined according to the free and original fancy of the artist, without showing the slightest similarity either to ancient processes or designs.

But in the decline of painting, sculpture and architecture in the days of Michelangelo, jewellery underwent the same fate. In the seventeenth century it was already in an advanced stage of decay and lost every merit, and every reminiscence of good taste, under the fatal domination of the Spaniards and Austrians over Italy.

Such criticism of the high and late Re-naissance goldsmith and jeweler notwithstanding, the Castellani family appreciated the brightly coloured three-dimensional qualities of this jewelry and did not fl inch from adding them to their already highly successful repertoire. Such pastiches are some of the most colourful and impressive made by the firm.

Despite his career as an antique dealer, Alessandro had opened premises in Paris, London, and Naples and had lectured on behalf of the firm in many parts of the world. When he died in June 1883, The Times recorded his passing thus: "A man who will be mourned by many a personal friend and political admirer and whose death will be regarded as an irreparable loss by every European and every American who cares for Classical Archaeology."

A parure of openwork gold jewelry in the Indian taste, set with chrysoprase, rubies and pearls. There is no doubt that Alessandro's death coincided with the beginning of the decline of the Archaeological School of Jewelry throughout Europe. His brother Augusto was to survive him by thirty years and to see the business, which had once been the focus of European royal, aristocratic and artistic circles, slowly peter out, because of its uncompromising attitude towards art. Augusta's place was taken on his death in 1914 by his son Alfredo, whose sad task it was to close down the once world-famous business. 

At the same time that the Parisian jewelers were making incomparably chic jewels from frosted rock-crystal, black onyx, coral and diamonds, Alfredo was selling archaeological fringe necklaces of granulated gold and scarabs to the tourists. The position of the shop in the Piazza Fontana di Trevi and the considerable reputation of his forebears allowed this to go on until his death in 1930.

The Castellani family understood the importance of the Great Exhibitions and showed jewelry in Florence in 1861, London in 1862 and 1872, Paris in 1867 and 1878, Vienna in 1873, Philadelphia in 1876 and Turin in 1884. Through their own writings and foreign travel, their influence on European and American jewelers is quite inestimable. The intentions of the entire family are summed up in Alessandro's words, "We do not reserve everything for ourselves, being fully satisfied that others will follow us, and, progressing in the mood we have chosen, will help to recall the attention and admiration of the modern world towards worthy objects."


The woman in this painting by Alma-Tadema is wearing a gold jewel by Giuliano in the form of the river god Acheloos.It was in England, more than anywhere else, that the aesthetic ideals of the Castellani family were enthusiastically accepted. By the early 1860s the spirit of revivalism had already taken a firm grip on the arts. 

By 1856 C.F. Hancock had created the sumptuously eclectic Devonshire parure incorporating Classical, medieval, and Re-naissance themes into one of the most magnificent suites of jewelry ever made in the 19th century. It is small wonder that Alessandro Castellani felt the moment was ripe to come to London; in 1861 he presented in English to the Archaeological Institute the lecture he had previously given in Paris, and this was circulated the following year as a privately printed book-let entitled "Antique Jewellery and its Revival".

It is now generally agreed that Carlo Giuliano accompanied Alessandro Castellani to London in about 1860 with the intention of managing a branch of the old firm at 13 Frith Street, Soho, much like the premises recently vacated at 85 Champs-Elysées. Why there is scant evidence of Castellani's part in the foundation of Giuliano's business in London remains a mystery; it may be that Carlo wished to disassociate himself from his master and deliberately suppressed the facts. It is significant, however, that the catalogue of the 1862 exhibition describes Castellani as a firm of Rome and London. Apart from this we have to rely on a small number of hazy clues to elucidate this important connection.

A portrait of Fanny Holman Hunt wearing a pendant necklace by Castellani and Giuliano. Carlo Giuliano's will begin thus: "I, Carlo Giuliano, late of Naples but now a naturalized British subject . . ." Given that Alessandro Castellani had a base in Naples, it has been suggested that he brought one of his principal craftsmen from there to London. However, if it is not possible to place the opening of the Naples workshop any earlier than in 1863, Carlo Giuliano must have come from the Castellani work-shops in Rome. Certainly all the evidence of his early goldsmithing techniques suggests that he was trained by Castellani. Another, more substantial hint of the connection between the two organizations comes from the already mentioned obituary of Alessandro Castellani in The Times which, referring to the Archaeological

School of Jewelers, reads as follows: "The Art has been carried to still greater perfection by another Italian, settled in London Signor Giuliano, whom we believe, had his first hint from Alessandro Castellani."

In the early years in London, Carlo Giuliano made a number of Revivalist jewels, some elaborately worked in the Archaeological taste more often associated with Castellani. Several of these pieces bear a gold label so close to Castellani's own that it was, until relatively recently, taken for the same. It is, in fact, a monogram of C and G rather than C and C as had previously been supposed. Perhaps Carlo Giuliano chose to use a signature different from that of his master but close enough not to incur his displeasure. 

Clara Bell, sister of the painter Sir Edward Poynter, was a customer of Qiuliano's. By 17 February 1863, Carlo Giuliano entered a much smaller mark with the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths and from time to time jewels bearing both the more conspicuous monogram and the later trade label come to light. This use of a clearly separate mark suggests that the relationship with Alessandro Castellani may already have been over by this time. 

The premises at Frith Street run by Giuliano were not a retail jewelers' establishment but, as later described, a "laboratory". The ornaments created there were offered for sale through notable jewelers' shops in the West End of London. This is a common trade practice which continues to this day. Regrettably outworkers' names were often concealed by leading retail houses, who preferred their customers to believe that everything in their showcases was of their own manufacture. 

These outworkers, although heavily subjected to the company name of their hosts, were sometimes referred to as "designers"! It is difficult to believe that some reference to Giuliano's Italian origins would not have been made during the course of a transaction, since the jewels were often obtrusively signed and his name must have carried some cachet. In one instance we know this to be true. Mrs. Henry Adams, visiting from the United States, wrote in 1879, "The daily temptations of London are enormous. . . . [for instance] Giuliano, Phillips."

A version of it Queen Victoria seems to have commissioned a series of this necklace, one of which she gave to Jenny Lind, the Swedish soprano. Robert Phillips (1810-81), whose business later became Phillips Brothers and Son of Cockspur Street, has been credited by trade tradition with Giuliano's establishment in London, but this is probably an exaggeration. Phillips was arguably one of the most prominent jewelers working in the Revivalist taste and he was clearly influenced by Castellani. The fact that Giuliano supplied him is now no longer in dispute and even some of those jewels which bear Phillips' trade label (back-to-back Ps and the Prince of Wales's feathers) can be firmly attributed to Giuliano.

Carlo Giuliano also supplied several other retail houses, among them C.F. Han-cock, Hunt and Roskell, and Harry Emanuel. By 1874 his business was sufficiently established to encourage him to open retail premises at 115 Piccadilly. This tiny shop was to become the resort of the aristocratic, intellectual and artistic communities for many years to come. Shunning the image of the s1rp1 tradesman, Carlo Giuliano preferred to be seen as something of an historian and scholar of precious metal-work.

The Descent of Psyche into Hell", an enameled gold pendant set with emeralds, sapphires, chrysolites, carbuncles and a pink topaz, which was designed by Charles Ricketts for the wedding of Mrs. Sturge Moore in 1904.  As a result he was able to attract the attention of the famous archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann. In "Ilios: the City and Country of the Trojans", Schliemann records how he took King Priam's treasure to Giuliano's shop to have it weighed and assayed and to ask the famous jeweler's opinion on how it was made. Giuliano said, "How the primitive goldsmith could do all this fine work, and in particular, how he could accomplish the minute granular work on the earrings, where grains of gold infinitely minute were to be soldered into the microscopic grooves how he could do all this without the aid of a lens is an enigma. But it was done, and with a powerful lens we can easily distinguish the soldering, even on the smallest rings."

These remarks are particularly valuable to us today, since the treasure under discussion was lost almost entirely during the Second World War. Furthermore, Schliemann's own integrity is now in question and so, therefore, must the treasure be.

The near hysterical interest of the British public in archaeology and their willingness to assimilate a style of jewelry, based on ancient prototypes, which had originated in Italy was not to last. Although Archaeological Jewelry was to be made well into the 20th century, Carlo Giuliano soon decided to focus on the Renaissance as his primary source of inspiration. It conveniently provided him with a more colourful palette and a softer effect, which the Elilish ladies found more amenable. 

A gold fringe necklace by CARLO and ARTHUR GIULIANO, decorated with black and white enamel and set with Indian diamonds taken at the battle of Seringapatam in 1799. Within, a gold pendant by CARLO GIULIANO decorated with enamel and set with pearls and rubies. The central oval aperture contains a repou.sse gold portrait of Queen Victoria, who gave the jewel to her goddaughter, Alexandra Elizabeth Grey. Little by little, openwork necklaces of candy-twist enamel were to replace the severity of plain gold diadems and fringe necklaces. Enameling was invariably used to evoke French and Italian jewelry of the 16th and 17th centuries, and sometimes even the necklaces and bracelets of Moghul India. Giuliano and his contemporaries never flinched from mixing entirely disparate sources of inspiration in a single jewel in order to achieve an effect.

The Pre-Raphaelites and their circle recognized in the eclecticism of Carlo Giuliano's work an echo of their own ideals. Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836- 1912) went to Giuliano to borrow a gold jewel for his painting "The Conversion of Paula". Sir Edward Poynter asked Giuliano to make the jewelry for his model in "Helen of Troy", hut perhaps the most famous commission from an artist was the bird brooch which Sir Edward Burne-Jones asked Giuliano to make up. 

In her biography of her husband, called Memorials, Lady Burne-Jones says, "Much later in his life his thoughts turned to jewel work, but I only remember one thing he carefully and completely designed and saw executed, a brooch, representing a dove, made of pink coral- !wand turquoise mounted in olive branches of green enamel." The version which belonged to Burne- Jones's daughter Margaret was shown at the New Gallery in 1892-93, and appears to have influenced the jewelry designs of several of his contemporaries.

A gold ring in the Byzantine style by Castellani. The bezel is set with red mosaic in the form of Chiio, the holy monogram of Christ.
Among them were John Paul Cooper, Charles Voysey and Charles Ricketts. Furthermore, the designs for jewels left with Giuliano by Sir Edward Burne-Jones seem to have influenced the commercial repertoire of the firm and from time to time pieces in the form of enameled hearts and laurels are found which owe their origins to Burne-Jones's restless imagination.

No doubt Charles Ricketts (1856-1931) sought out Giuliano not only because of the Burne-Jones connection hut also for the firm's skill in interpreting Renaissance themes. The British Museum has a small album, prepared by Ricketts at Richmond in about 1899, which contains numerous jewelry designs represented in rich and beautiful colours, often heightened with gold. Among them are ideas for jewels to be given to a small group of friends. Ricketts published some of the work of the poets Katherine Bradley (1846-1914) and her niece Edith Cooper (1862-1913), who collaborated under the pseudonym of Michael Field. Katherine was known to him as

Michael and Edith Cooper assumed the name Henry. They spoke of Ricketts as "Fairy Man" or "Fay" in reference to the wizardry of his various talents. On 8 December 1899 Ricketts gave Katherine Bradley a pendant he had designed in the form of a large oval turquoise held in an enameled gold mount that was further decorated with pearls and hung with an amethyst, and Giuliano had been asked to make it up. 

An enameled gold diadem, set with brown agates and white glass beads, which draws its inspiration from a classical jewel in the Campana collection which dates from the third century BC. Also in the series of jewels designed by Ricketts and made by Giuliano was the pendant called "Pegasus Drinking at the Fountain of Hippocrene" now in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge; it was made to contain a miniature of Edith Cooper by Ricketts and given to Katherine Bradley by him in May 1901. The poets were consulted during the designing of the jewel and Henry wondered whether Giuliano would make it "daintily absurd enough". Eventually the jewel was complete and Ricketts confessed that, at first, he could not have been more pleased but then, like "God on Sunday", he began to reflect and found two places where the work was not up to standard.

Between 1899 and 1904 a number of other pieces were made, but as Edith Cooper had predicted these experiments were relatively short-lived. She found that the '.4weller's work coarsens the design, the setting often robbing the stone of its size, and then the objects get lost, and, with the future in mind it's not worth doing." The cost of using Giuliano to execute the designs must have worried Ricketts' generous nature. 

Two similar Castellani bracelets, decorated with white and gold mosaics and spelling tt the Latin NON RELINQUES"Michael Field" was so apprehensive concerning the forthcoming bill for the "Pegasus" jewel that they considered selling their clothes to an intimidating old gipsy woman. Giuliano and his sub; stantiallbills were so much part of Ricketts' life at the time that he introduced the theme into the plot of a play he and "Michael Field" were to write together, based on the story of Madame de Chateaubriand and her jewels at the court of Francois I. It was to be called "Giuliano or Never Let Ls Part"

Before his death in 1895, Carlo Giuliano had taken care to see that the business would continue under the ownership of his two sons Arthur Alphonse (1864-1914) and Carlo, and he clearly acknowledged to whom his success in business was due. His will directed that all his devoted retail customers should receive a small jewel from his stock up to the value of €50 and, furthermore, seventeen grenaille works of art made by him were to be left to the English Government on his death, together with enamel work from his stock to the value of £200 to be selected by the director of the South Kensington Museum, now the Victoria and Albert Museum. Ultimately the bequest of Giuliano's jewels was housed there in a glass case by the tea rooms.

A pair of hair ornaments and a brooch by GIULIANO from the collection of Mrs. William Holman Hunt in the form of marguerites the petals carved from coral and the centers of enamel set with a coral bead. The signed brooch cannot be later than 1895 but the box dates from 1912 -14. It has been suggested by Mrs. Elizabeth Tompkin, adopted daughter of Qladys Holman Hunt and current owner of the jewels, that the date of the box might be explained if the combs, which are unsigned, were made between 1912 and 1914 to match the existing brooch.
In 1899 the case was broken into and the jewels stolen. Today only a few fragments remain to give us some idea of the superlative quality of this collection. Carlo and Arthur Giuliano were obviously distressed by the theft; in 1900 they gave the Museum seven more items made by their father and the Museum purchased a necklace by Carlo for €250.

Arthur Giuliano continued in the way his father had taught him and artistic, intellectual and aristocratic circles continued to patronize the business, as well as Queen Victoria, Queen Alexandra, King Edward VII and Queen Victoria's daughter the Empress Frederick of Prussia. The pattern was broken in 1910, however, with the accession of King George V and his consort Queen Mary, who is believed to have held certain prejudices against the "foreign" origins of the establishment. Despite continual Royal patronage there is no record of any member of the Giuliano family being granted warrants, invariably an outward sign of such a relationship.

A necklace by Carlo Giuliano in gold cave pearls and green and blue enamel.
Arthur Giuliano is universally remembered as having enormous charm. Charles Ricketts was sufficiently captivated by him to write, "When I last saw the glorious Giuliano he received me in emeralds . . ." His happy and winning personality, coup-led with wide-ranging artistic gifts, concealed a complicated private life. He was married to Eleanor Gertrude Gray on 27 September 1893 and separated from her after twenty years of marriage to take up residence with Amelia Sarah Barker. 

Amelia was the beneficiary of his will and the mother of several children. It may be that the outbreak of the First World War, the difficulties of maintaining the business in a new location (48 Knightsbridge from 1912) and his own colourful domestic circum-stances led Arthur Giuliano to take his life with a revolver on the last day of August 1914. His tragic suicide caused the closure of a firm that had occupied a leading position in London as art jewelers for some fifty-five years.

Writer – Thames & Husdon
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