Thursday, 28 February 2013

Introduction to Jewelry Tradition of India



The Bird of Gold
"Gods, Asuras, Gandbaras, Kinnaras began to pour into Dwaraka, to Krishna and Valarama. Some descended from the sky, some from their cars and alighting underneath the banyan tree looked on Dwaraka, the matchless. The city was square; it measured a hundred yojanas, and over all, was decked in pearls, rubies, diamonds, and other gems. The city was high, it was ornamented with gems; and it was furnished with cupolas of rubies and diamonds, with emerald pillars, and with court-yard of rubies. It contained endless temples. It had cross-roads decked with sapphires, and highways blazing with gems. It blazed like a meridian sun in summer"

A crest jewel in the form of a gem set peacock. The bird of India dances with outspread feathers in celebration of its timeless heritage.The story of Indian jewellery goes back over 5000 years to the pre-historic past. It is scattered over vast tracts of land, and nestles amidst silent emblems of human endeavour. But then what is 5000 years for the god-intoxicated Indian who believes that life is only a temporary halt in the eternal cycle of birth and re-birth? Only an ephemeral moment! In every birth, he sought to immortalise his presence by leaving his imprint on earth. Decoration of his physical surroundings and of his self was a consuming pre-occupation. From the clay beneath his feet, he fashioned items for everyday use, toys for his amusement and images for veneration; from the mountains and quarries, he hewed slabs of stone into architectural edifices of great proportions and sculpted them into likenesses of himself and of his environment; from deep within the earth, he extracted imperishable minerals and metals and crafted beautiful pieces to adorn his body. Generation after generation these archetypes of human endeavour passed through time, and were admired, worshipped and worn by man, woman and child. The story of Indian jewellery is woven from these time-worn threads. Silent links in the history of our land.

Indian jewellery defies chronology In spite of a belief in the transmigration of the soul the custom of burying worldly possessions with the dead was not prevalent in India. Few pieces of jewellery have been found in the course of archaeological excavations and even fewer have an accepted provenance. 

Examples from different parts of the country and from each era in history are therefore negligible. The country is vast, the influences many and there has been a continuous movement of people, concepts, designs and even techniques over large areas. If extant examples of jewellery are rare, rarer still are names of jewellers, goldsmiths, and designers. Families hold jewellery as private wealth, sometimes worn, but never shown. Throughout history, the easy portability of jewellery has been the one factor that has not just allowed vast quantities to be carried and displayed at will, but also made it the prime target of invaders seeking to loot. Therefore, unlike the plastic arts, it has not been feasible to strictly compartmentalize and segregate jewellery forms on the basis of historic periods, geographical regions or even caste and religion.

Indian jewellery is not merely craft; it is an art, both in design and workmanship. It therefore deserves to be studied as a major art form, on par with architecture, sculpture and painting. The study of Indian jewellery in fact warrants a multi-disciplinary approach. Thus, we are the archaeologist-historian voyaging back in time, tracing references in literature and the plastic arts; perusing the chronicles of kings, travelling along ancient trade routes from the diamond mines of Golconda to the emerald mines of Colombia, and thereon to the royal ateliers and humble workshops. We assume the role of the anthropologist seeking the meaning behind the pieces to learn about people and traditions.

We delve into the meanings of symbols and forms, as well as the social, psychological and spiritual ethos in which these jewels have taken root. We probe the creative mind of the jewellery designer for whom all Creation was an inexhaustible source of inspiration. We humbly sit by the craftsman painstakingly shaping precious metals and gems into timeless jewels. Above all, we are the chroniclers, documenting an art whose terminology, purity of form and distinctive reason for being are fast vanishing even as we write.

In the absence of any documentation of designs, symbolism and terminology, we have had to rely on evidence in sculptures, paintings, photographs, contextual literary references, and discussions with elderly people, jewellers and craftsmen, temple priests and philosophers. Ancient texts and travelogues have proved to be invaluable sources of information in this endeavour. They are first-hand accounts about t he locations of the rich mineral resources of India, the demand for them in the west and the trade in these commodities. While it has been necessary to sift fact from fiction, the colourful imagery of life and culture in the past and the descriptions of wealth and pomp of court life all evoke powerful images to complete the picture.

Jewellery in India has drawn upon many facets of the culture of its people, and has in turn been inspiration and solace to wearer and beholder. Sculptors and painters transgressed boundaries between the real, the ideal and the imaginary, profusely embellishing their images with ornaments. To the many classical Indian writers, gold and gemstones were a source of enchanting visual metaphors. Rulers used jewels as statements of power and prestige and as a monetary bulwark to fund wars and buy peace. To the Indian woman, jewellery has been more than the ultimate enhancer of beauty; it was stridban her security, to be encashed in times of need and distress. 
Jewellery was also indicative of the wearer's social status. And going beyond their earthly allure, jewels find a place in the realm of the metaphysical. Belief in the prophylactic and apotropaic power of gems was deeply ingrained in the Indian psyche. Thus a jewel often functioned as a medium between the known and the Unknown, between man and God.

Jewellery made of precious gems and gold had an intrinsic value, to be encashed if the need arose. Ornaments were taken apart, the gold melted and stones recycled into new settings in accordance with changing styles or for equitable distribution of family property. As a result, it is primarily amongst the peasants and the wandering tribes of India that "the oldest and most historic forms of ornaments have been preserved" in a purer form. "The chief reason is that being made of base metal, it has never been worthwhile to break them up, as would be the case with silver or gold in case of poverty of the owner." In India, jewellery has always been portable wealth; history has proved just how portable this Wealth was. Treasuries and temples were constantly raided in the course of invasions, and large quantities of precious metal and precious stones were carted away by invaders. Upheavals of this kind resulted in the destruction of old jewellery.

Since the bulk of the jewellery was non-denominational, and superstitions and belief's were common to many parts of the country, ornaments became the one constant among all communities, resulting in a pan-Indianness in this art form. Moreover, the plastic arts and literature together testify' that the jewellery forms of India in each historical period are SO hybridized, that to separate and class0 individual currents is difficult. Such a task, even if it were attempted, based on evidence culled from diverse sources, would be a hypothetical exercise to some extent.

From very early times, people moved from place to place for various reasons. Tradesmen and emissaries came to India in search of its fabled wealth. People migrated as a result of marriage alliances, seeking better livelihoods, journeyed on religious pilgrimages, and were compelled to move on expeditions of war and conquest. In this migratory movement, people became prime vehicles for the transmission of culture. As a result, ideas and design influences flowed freely past geographical boundaries. Craftsmen also carried their technology and skills, to cater to this population in flux. Manufacturing techniques too were synthesized. During the long years of dynastic rule, the courts set fashion trends, which found an echo in the tastes of the common people.

Surat and the Malabar Coast are excellent examples of the cross-fertilization that took place in jewellery traditions; they are microcosms of so many other parts of the country. The plurality of these two major gem trading regions, where indigenous inhabitants interacted with foreigners, merchants and migrant communities from other parts of the country, produced jewellery forms which exhibit a mixture of influences, whose individual strains are no longer identifiable. By amalgamating, absorbing and indigenizing the many influences, the Indian jeweller crafted an ornament that was distinctly and uniquely Indian.

The artistic merit of this unbroken tradition has been misunderstood by the uninitiated, who have labelled it 'aesthetic conventionalism'. Suffice here to quote Dr. Ananda Coomaraswamy's thoughts on Indian art: "In this kind of art there is no demand for novelty, because the fundamental needs of humanity are always and everywhere the same. What is required is originality, or vitality. What we mean by 'original' is 'coming from its source within'... the artist can only express what is in him... It makes no difference whether or not the same thing has been expressed a thousand times before. What matters is the intensity of the expression and such work will be original in the same sense that 'the recurrent seasons, sunrise and sunset are ever new'."

In spite of the strong Portuguese, Dutch, French and British presence in different parts of the country from the 15'" century onwards, very little western influence of prevailing contemporary European styles is evident until the 20th century. The art deco movement that was popular in Europe at the time contributed a small share of influence, as did other western styles that were introduced by renowned foreign jewellery firms soliciting business in India; but this was confined to the wealthy aristocratic classes with little or no visible mark on the vast jewellery using peoples of India.

Jewellery in India was not the exclusive prerogative of women. The jewels of gods and kings rivalled those of women. Three distinct categories of precious jewellery for personal use were made in ancient India. In the first category were items that were made for daily use. Traditionally, no Indian woman, irrespective of status or caste, was without a set of basic daily wear ornaments. Ceremonial jewellery, made to be worn on special occasions, was more opulent. The most magnificent specimens that left many a chronicler speechless were the jewels of the gods and kings. However, quality of workmanship was not compromised irrespective of the value and size of the ornament or the status of the intended wearer.

The subject of Indian jewellery is vast and complex. This enquiry is only the beginning, whose scope has been limited to gold and precious gems. This journey is not meant to be a geographical sojourn through the different regions of India, nor is it meant to be a strictly chronological and historical analysis. Accurate dating of Indian jewellery is a difficult task, since styles and designs continued unchanged over long periods of time. In assessing the historical, social or religious value of evidence, it is essential to bear in mind that in this field, more than in any other, 'things heard are not things seen and to see things is to not comprehend them properly'.

It must be noted that the geographical boundaries of the country have expanded and contracted through millennia. The terms 'India' and 'Indian' have been used in this work to refer to ancient boundaries extending beyond the Hindu Kush in the west, to Burma in the east, and from the Himalayas in the north to the island of Ceylon in the south. Rubies and spinels from Badakshan and Burma, sapphires from Kashmir and precious gems from Ceylon were all traded in the bazaars of ancient India, supplying the many vibrant ateliers with an abundance of gems.

If all these jewels could only speak, what stories they could tell! Of their dark homes within the bowels of the earth; of being wrenched out, traded and transported over great distances to workshops and ateliers to be lovingly fashioned to grace the bodies of gods, men and women. They could tell stories of war, intrigue, love and hatred. Their sojourn in the forbidden precincts of the zenana made them privy to heartbreak, to gossip, to Iover's passionate embraces, to the vicissitudes of human life.

So many epithets have been used to describe the wealth that was India. None seems more apt than 'Sone ki Chidia’, the Bird of Gold. For, indeed India has been a bird of gold, soaring above land and sea dispersing her wealth across vast geographical areas for over 5000 years. From the ancient past, her gold, her precious gems and her vast treasure of diamonds have not only appealed to every taste but have been in constant demand. For her jewels alone, this bird of gold has been assaulted and caged in successive periods of history. Her jewelled wings depleted, the bird continues to fly, occasionally soaring and swelling with pride, when one of her beautiful treasures surfaces for the entire world to see.

"The peacock calls gently to his mate who tarries, and glances once again toward the sky; then, leaping from his stage, the earth, making a parasol of his unfolded tail, to the sound of thunder sweet as loud reverberations of a drum he performs his joyful dance."

Writer – Usha R Bala Krishnan

Photo detail 11a1-
A crest jewel in the form of a gem set peacock. The bird of India dances with outspread feathers in celebration of its timeless heritage.
Photo detail 12a1-
Petals of rubies encircle table-cut diamonds in foliate panels suspended with large spinets. Such exquisitely crafted jewels were emblems of court splendour and were hallmarks of the aesthetic vision of patron and craftsman.
Photo detail 12a1-
A sculpture of the beautiful courtesan Vasantasena, heroine of the text Mricchakatika, decked in the jewellery of the period. Literature and the plastic arts together provide an insight into the ornament traditions of ancient India.
Photo detail 13-
Maitreya enters the sixth court in Vasantasena's home and looks about: "Well! Here in the sixth court they are working in gold and jewels. The arches set with sapphires look as if they were the home of the rainbow. The jewellers are testing the lapis lazuli, the pearls, the corals, the topazes, the sapphires, the cat's eyes, the rubies, the emeralds, and all the other kinds of gems. Rubies are being set in gold. Golden ornaments are being fashioned. Pearls are being strung on a red cord. Pieces of lapis lazuli are being cleverly polished. Shells are being pierced. Corals are being ground."
Photo detail 15a1-
This stiff gold neck collar is lavishly decorated with champlevé and painted pink enamel on the reverse. The front (plate 5b) is set with diamonds, turquoise, rubies and some synthetic stones, perhaps replacing missing gems.
Photo detail 15a2-
A striking emblem of marital felicity, this enormous gem-set circlet is no less than 10 cm in diameter and has rubies and diamonds kundan-set in gold.
Photo detail 16a1-
Uncut diamonds and Burmese peridots are set in an open cut-work setting in these jewels reputed to have once belonged to a princely family.
Photo detail 17a1-
The ornament gets its name from the curving crocodile (makara) tail shape of the upper pendant. In this piece two gem-studded peacocks flank a large rosette. Forms derived from nature were a never-ending source of inspiration to the Indian craftsman.
Photo detail 18-
For the marriage of his daughter Visakha, Treasurer Dhananjaya commissioned the making of a jewel. "On that very day Visakha's father caused five hundred goldsmiths to be summoned and said to them, 'Make for my daughter a great-creeper-parure.' So saying, he gave them a thousand nikkhas of ruddy gold and a sufficient supply of silver, rubies, pearls, coral, and diamonds to go with it... four months passed, and the parure was completed. In the making of this parure, four pint-pots of diamonds were used, eleven pint-pots of pearls, twenty-two pint-pots of coral, twenty-three pint-pots of rubies; with these and other of the seven kinds of jewels the parure was completed. Ordinary threads were not used in the making of this parure; the threadworlz was entirely of silver It was fastened to the head and extended to the feet. In various places seals of gold and dies of silver were attached to hold it in position. There was one seal on the crown of the head, one on the top of each ear, one at the throat, one on each knee, one at each elbow, one at the waist, and one at the small of the back. In the fabric of this parure the goldsmiths wrought a peacock; in its right wing were five hundred feathers of ruddy gold, and. in its left wing five hundred. Its beak was of coral, its eyes were of gems, and likewise its neck and its tail-feathers; the midribs of the feathers were of precious stones and likewise its legs. When it was placed on the crown of Visakha-'s head, it appeared like a peacock standing on the peak of a mountain and dancing; and the sound of the midribs of the thousand feathers was like the music of the celestial choir or of the five kinds of instruments. Only by going very close could people tell that it was not a real peacock. The materials used in the making of this parure cost nine crores, and a hundred thousand pieces of money were paid for the workmanship."
Photo detail 19a1-
"Metals arc (as Plants) hidden and buried in the bowels of the Earth, which have some conform in themselves, in the form and manner of their production; for that we see and discover in them, branches, and as it were a bodie, from whence they grow and proceede, which are the greater veines and the lesse, so as they have a knitting in themselves: and it seemes properly that these Minerals grow like unto Plants, not that they have any inward vegetative life, being only proper to Plantes: but they are engendered in the bowels of the earth, by the vertue and force of the Sunne and other Planets, and in long continuance of time, they increase and multiply after the manner of Plants."
Photo detail 20-
This necklace of coins extends down to the waist. A pan-Indian ornament, the use of coins in jewellery constituted a form of savings and a display of wealth.

Therapeutic use of gems II



Epilepsy
Moonstone
It is characterized by sudden disturbances of brain function. The patient frequently goes into violent fits or convulsions. It also results in temporary loss of consciousness. It is not a hereditary disease. The chief causes of this are brain injury, diseases in other organs reacting upon the brain, emotional disturbances and alcoholic excesses. The sign Aries governs the brain. Mars controls the brain, Mercury the brain nerves and Moon the mind and mental structure. Any affliction of these planets in Aries by Rahu or Saturn may give rise to this trouble. Ketu in evil aspect to the Moon or Mercury in Aries gives rise to this trouble. Use Emerald and Moon Stone. Red Coral may be used if necessary.

Fever
It is a body temperature above normal body temperature of 98.6 Fahrenheit (taken orally). Fever is a sign of disease accompanied by other signs, viz, a more rapid pulse, changes in breathing, a feeling of chill, nausea, diarrhoea and headache. In high fever, unconsciousness or delirium may take place. Fever may be of several types: malarial-fever, meningitis. typhoid, rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, yellow fever, etc. Mars gives all fevers and inflammations in the body. Absence of red rays causes fever. Anyhow, red rays are required to be injected into the body. This can be done by the use of red cloth, red thread, or a copper ring. Use Red Coral.

Fistula
The most common types of fistula are vesico-vaginal fistula between the bladder and the vagina, sometimes the result of childbirth injury, arteriovenous fistula, an abnormal connection between an artery and a vein caused by either a congenital malformation or a wound to the artery, a salivary fistula through which saliva dribbles out on the cheek instead of going into the mouth. Mars is the main planet which causes this disease. Use Red Coral and Moonstone.
Red-Coral stone 
Gangrene
It arises due to the death of body tissue over an area large enough to be visible. When the circulation of blood to a part of the body is so damaged that the tissues can no longer get nourishment or dispose of their waste products, the result is gangrene. Dry gangrene occurs in older people. Saturn is the main planet which causes this trouble. Use Red Coral, red cloth, red thread and a copper ring.

Gastric ulcer
A peptic ulcer is a breach or erosion in the inner linings and, rarely, the entire wall of the stomach or the duodenum. A true stomach ulcer is called a gastric ulcer; the others are duodenal ulcers. From the standpoint of symptoms and treatment, they are pretty much alike. The causes of gastric ulcer are anxiety, worry, nervous tension, irregular eating, alcohol, spicy dishes, heavy pressures of work, etc. An excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach eats away sites of ulcer causing pain and other complications. Saturn or Ketu, if afflicted in Cancer or Virgo, causes gastric ulcer. The Sun or Ketu in the 5th house from the ascendant if afflicted by Mars gives rise to this trouble. Use Emerald and Yellow Sapphire on the middle and 3rd finger, respectively. Moonstone may be used as an additional gem in acute cases.

Glaucoma
It is a serious disease of unknown cause, begins in the fluids encased in the eyeball. The pressure that these fluids exert against other parts of the eye increases, suddenly or gradually. If this pressure is not relieved, it may take the eyeball hard, damage the retina and even destroy fibres of the optic. In this disease, glasses do no good. Women are more likely to suffer from glaucoma than men. The Sun and the Moon if afflicted in the 2nd or 12th house by Saturn or Rahu, the native may suffer from this disease. Use Red Coral and White Pearl.

Goiter (Hypertrophy)
Enlargement of the thyroid gland or excess growth of cells is commonly known as goiter. It is caused by deficiency of iodine in the food. Venus if afflicted in Taurus or in the 6th house causes this trouble. Use White Coral and Moonstone.

Gonorrhea
Emerald stoneIt is a venereal disease and is caused by a specific microbe, the gonococcus spread by illicit sexual intercourse. The only source of gonorrehal infection is discharge from lesions of the mucous membranes or lymph nodes of persons currently afflicted. The usual symptoms are burning and pain during urination, discomfort in the urinary region and the discharge of a few drops of pus from the open end of the penis. In women, the symptoms are yellowish vaginal discharge and a painful swelling or abscess of the glands at the mouth of the vulva. Mars in the 7th or 8th house if heavily afflicted by malefics causes this trouble. Use Red Coral in 9 rattis and Moonstone.

Gout or rheumatism
Gout is a form of arthritis which may affect both the joints and ankles making them suddenly painful, red and tender. It is a metabolic disease in which the body fails to get rid of uric acid. The excess uric acid may crystallize in various parts of the body.

These chalky deposits called tophi can be found in the ear lobes, elbows, skin (about the finger nail) and in the cartilage inside joints. Preventing attacks require cutting down on food and weight and avoiding protein foods that foster the formulation of uric acid. Jupiter in lagna and Saturn in the 7th house cause gout. Saturn is the main planet which causes gout. Saturn in Taurus, Leo, Virgo, Sagittarius, Capricorn or Pisces causes this trouble. Saturn in 1st, 5th, 7th, 12th house also causes gout. Mars in the 10th house afflicted by Saturn may give this trouble. Conjunction of Saturn and Rahu in the 2nd or 3rd produces gout. Use Red Coral or Yellow Sapphire.

Garnet-StoneHeadache
It is probably the most common complaint which vexes us. The causes are numerous. Some are anxiety, injuries to the head or other parts of the body, epilepsy, liver troubles, kidney troubles, eye troubles, sinus infection, fever, etc. Eye trouble is a frequent cause of headache. Exertion or fatigue may also cause headache. The main planet is Mercury which controls the brain nerves.

Other planets are Mars and Saturn. The sign Aries governs our brain, head and forehead. Any affliction of this sign by malefics will give rise to this trouble. Use Emerald and Moonstone.

Heart diseases
There are at least 20 kinds of organic heart diseases that usually affect the heart muscles, the valves of the heart or its inner or outer lining. There are also a number of functional disorders of the heart. The most common type of heart diseases is high blood pressure (hypertension) and hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). A heart attack is usually a case of coronary thrombosis. Heart failure happens when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to all parts of the body. Rheumatic fever is a kind of heart disease. The 4th house from the ascendant rules over our heart. The signs Cancer and Leo control over heart. The planets involved in causing heart disease are the Moon, Jupiter, Mercury, Sun, Saturn and Rahu. The Moon governs the heart, Mercury the nerves, Mars the blood and brain, the Sun the brain and heart. Any three planets in Leo or Aquarius if heavily afflicted will give heart trouble. The Sun in Cancer, Aquarius or Pisces causes heartache. The Moon in Gemini or Leo gives heart disease. When the lagna is in a watery sign and lord of the lagna occupies a dusthana, i.e. 6th, 8th, 12th position, the native gets heart attack. When the sign Leo or Aquarius and the 4th house from the ascendant are afflicted by Mars, Rahu or Saturn, the native gets heart trouble. Saturn governs breathing and if he afflicts the sign Leo or Aquarius the native gets heart trouble. Use Emerald, Moonstone and Yellow Sapphire. Red Coral may be used as an additional gem in acute cases.

Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver is called hepatitis. This is a virus infection. Jupiter and Mercury are the main planets responsible for this trouble. Use Emerald and Yellow Sapphire. Moonstone may be used as an additional gem.

Hiccough
Golden-TopazIt is caused due to an involuntary contraction of the diaphragm that closes the glottis a breathing tube from the throat at the moment of breathing in. Rahu in Taurus afflicted by malefics or the Sun in Cancer afflicted by Rahu may give rise to this trouble. Use Red Coral, red cloth, red thread.

Hernia
The protrusion of a loop or part of the intestine through an abnormal hole in the abdominal wall is called hernia. Sometimes a loop of bowel protrudes into the scrotum. It is usually caused by weakness or absence of muscles, ligaments and other connecting tissue that should hold organs in their place. A most rare type is the protrusion of the stomach and other parts of the upper abdomen into the lungs through a hole in the diaphragm muscle which separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. Venus is Scorpio or in the 6th house afflicted by Saturn or Mars in Virgo receiving the evil rays of Saturn may give rise to this trouble. Use Red Coral and Yellow Sapphire.

High blood pressure
Now-a-days high blood pressure takes away many valuable human lives. It is considered as the highest killer. It is consistent elevation of the pressure of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries and other blood vessels. It may be diagnosed when after repeated examinations, blood pressure measurements continue to stand above the normal range.

Astrologically the Sun and Mars rule over the heart. Jupiter governs our lungs. Saturn and Mercury control over heart and brain nerves. The Moon governs the mind, mental structure, breast and chest. The signs Gemini, Cancer and Leo govern our lungs, chest and heart, respectively. It is said that any three planets if posited in Leo or Aquarius, the native will invariably suffer from serious type of heart troubles. Gemini has control over the lungs, respiratory system, bronchial tubes and nervous system. Malefics here in Gemini cause heart trouble, asthma, pneumonia, bronchitis, consumption, pleurisy and so on. Mars in Gemini gives bronchitis, inflammation of the lungs, pneumonia. Mercury in Gemini gives bronchitis and defects in the respiratory system. Saturn in Gemini gives pneumonia, consumption, bronchitis and pleurisy. Jupiter in Gemini gives pleurisy, blood disorders and lung affliction.

Singly they are not so bad. But two or three malefics in Gemini would certainly cause serious health troubles like asthma, consumption, pleurisy, bronchitis, etc. Conjunction of the Moon and Ketu in Gemini is very dangerous as it gives asthma, hypertension, consumption, etc. Conjunction of the Moon and Saturn is also a dangerous combination.

Jade-StoneThe 4th house from the ascendant also rules over our heart. Mars if afflicted in the 4th house by other malefics gives hypertension. Singly Mars is not very bad but when conjoined with Saturn or Rahu in the 4th house, it becomes virulent and causes serious types of hypertension. The lagna stands for self and body. Two or three malefics in the ascendant may cause hypertension. The 7th house also gives prolonged sickness as the planets posited in the 7th house directly aspect the lagna.

Therefore, malefics in the 7th house give heavy and long periods of sickness. The sign Cancer governs our chest and stomach. Malefics here give heart and stomach troubles. Saturn in Cancer causes asthmatic complaints. Mars in Cancer gives gastric fever, typhoid, enteric fever and bilious complaints. Singly they are not so bad, but when conjoined with one or two other malefics, they usually become virulent and cause much trouble.

Conjunction of Mars and Saturn in Cancer is very dangerous as this union damages the heart as Well as stomach. The native would invariably suffer either from gastric ulcer or from hypertension. Conjunction of the Moon and Ketu in Cancer is also dangerous. Leo causes ailments through inharmonious living and generally disturbs the heart and blood. Usually it governs the heart. Saturn in Leo causes organic weakness of the heart and Saturn in Aries gives cerebral troubles. Mars in Leo gives palpitation of the heart and hypertension. Venus in Leo also causes heart troubles. Mercury in Leo gives palpitation and spasms of the heart. Rahu or Ketu in Leo also causes serious heart troubles.

Chrysoberyl cat’eye stone
Rahu in Aries gives spasmodic pains in the head and inflammation of the coverings and membranes of the brain. Singly they are not so bad, but conjoined with one or two other malefics, they become virulent and would invariably damage the heart and cause hypertension. So the conjunction of Saturn and Mars, or Mars and Rahu in Leo would invariably give hypertension.

Thus two or three strong malefics in Gemini, Cancer, Leo or Aquarius directly aspect Leo and thus damage the heart and cause heart troubles. So two or three malefics in Aquarius is a sure indication of getting high blood pressure, Consult astrologer in this case.

Hydrocele
This is the accumulation of fluids in the serotal sac causing it to swell. In infant and children, it usually goes away. In adults it can be treated by the simple operation of removing the accumulated fluid through a hollow needle. Hydroceles sometimes disappear and return. It is sometimes mistaken for a hernia or rupture and then diagnosis may become difficult. A hernia usually changes size with changes in body position but a hydrocele stays about the same size. The sign Scorpio rules over the sex organs. The 7th or 8th house from the ascendant governs our private parts. Malefics in the 8th or 2nd house or in Scorpio cause this trouble. Mars and Venus are the two planets which cause this trouble, if heavily afflicted by Rahu or Saturn. Use Red Coral and Moonstone.

Hysteria
It means frequent fits and faintings. It is one of the many forms of mental illness, commonly known as neurosis which includes shouting, wildly weeping and fainting. The three mental rules are the Moon, Mercury and Saturn. The signs Gemini, Virgo and Aquarius rule over our mind and mental structure. The 3rd and 9th houses from the ascendant govern our mind and mental structure. Even the simple association of Rahu or Saturn with the Moon or Mercury may give rise to this trouble. When the Moon occupies either signs of Saturn or Capricorn or Aquarius, the native will suffer from hysteria. Use Red Coral and Moonstone.

Lapis-Lazuli-StoneImpotency
It is the inability of the male to have an erection of the penis. It may be caused by nerve injuries, excessive indulgence in sexual activities in early life, or excessive alcoholic addiction. The 8th houses of the zodiac, i.e. Scorpio and the 7th house from the ascendant govern our private parts. Malefics in the 7th or 8th house from the ascendant may give rise to this trouble. Mars or Venus if afflicted by Saturn or Rahu can make a man impotent. Use Red and White Coral. Yellow Sapphire may be used as an additional gem in acute cases.

Influenza
It is a virus disease affecting the respiratory, nervous and gastro-intestinal system. It is the first stage of pneumonia. If it causes brain inflammation, it will become fatal. The symptoms are headache, fatigue, severe pain in the body, drowsiness, chills and fever, a dry cough and painful eyes. It is purely a Mars disease. Mars coming in Cancer or Leo causes this trouble. It usually occurs during change of season, and especially during the winter months. Use Red Coral and Yellow Sapphire.

Insanity
It is a mental disease. It is the exaggeration of personal behaviour to the point where it strikes other people as queer, old, abnormal or dangerous. It represents the individual's failure to resolve emotional conflicts in his conscious mind and his unconscious choice of behaviour patterns that he feels will protect him. Mental illness is a reaction against and an escape from inner pain and conflict.

Temporary distortions of some mental faculties such as memory and power of concentration frequently occur. The causes are brain damage, stress and strain, anxiety and worry, etc. It arises when the Sun or the Moon in the 1st, 5th, 9th houses of a birth-chart are afflicted by Saturn or Rahu. The Moon and Rahu in the 8th or 12th house afflicted by Mars may cause lunacy. Any affliction by Rahu or Saturn to the Moon or Mercury in any house will cause lunacy. Mercury in the 6th, 8th, 12th house if afflicted by Rahu or Saturn may give rise to insanity. Use Emerald, Red Coral and Moonstone.

Jaundice
Jaundice was formerly defined simply as the condition brought about by staining of the skin, whites of the eyes and tissues with bile pigment. The modern conception regards excess of bile pigment in the circulating blood as the essential point, the staining of the tissues being secondary. Jaundice in the blood may disappear and yet the skin, whites of the eyes and tissues remain yellow for many days.

Astrologically, Jupiter is the chief karaka planet for jaundice. The 5th house of the Zodiac is Virgo and its ruler is Mercury. Mercury if afflicted by 2/3 malefics gives this trouble.

The 5th house from the ascendant rules over our stomach, Ketu is the planet of chaos and confusion. He gives all sorts of mysterious diseases. Ketu if posited in the 5th house and afflicted by 2/3 malefics confers this disease.

The sign Cancer also governs our stomach as it is a watery sign. Its ruler is the Moon. The Moon if afflicted by malefics in 4th, 5th, 7th causes this trouble. Mars or Saturn if posited in Cancer causes liver troubles. If Rahu or Ketu is posited in the 7th, the native suffers from jaundice.

white-pearl-bracelet
Many planets govern our stomach. The Sun controls the glands, Mercury the nerves, Jupiter the liner, Saturn the spleen and intestinal nerves, Mars the muscles of stomach and the Moon our stomach. But when compared with Saturn in strength, all other planets become feeble. Use Blue Sapphire (light) in 5 rattis in madhyama and Red Coral (7/8 rattis) on right arm will help.

Leprosy
Leprosy is an ancient and awesome disease. Rahu is the chief planet which causes this disease. Position of Rahu in 3rd, 6th, 12th house is enough to render the native liable for leprosy. It is said that Ketu also in similar positions is capable of manifesting this disease. The well-known kustha yoga is formed when the lord of lagna is conjoined with Mars and Mercury in the 4th or 12th houses. The kustha yoga is also formed when Jupiter occupies the 6th house along with Saturn and the Moon. If Venus and Mars are in the 7th, aspect by Ketu or Saturn, a virulent form of leprosy may appear. A person will contact leprosy in his 20th year if the Moon and Jupiter are in the 6th house. Use Gomedh and Red Coral jointly or Gomedh and White Coral.

Leucoderma
Leucoderma is a chromic skin manifested as areas of depigmentation. Any portion of the skin or scalp may be involved. White patches, multiple or single, tend to increase in size and are more prominent because of their contrast with surrounding and normal skin. Spread is slow over many years. Causation is conjectural. It is not usually observed prior to puberty but children are also not exempt.

The condition is rarely associated with any general pathological change. There would appear to be no connexion with adrenal, pituitary or ovarian diseases.

The white patches are due to a chemical substance called "Melanin". It is found in various regions of the body, perhaps therapeutic use of gems 159 most abundantly in the skin. Melanin is found in everybody's skin. Where there is an excess of melanin in the skin, leucoderma appears. There is no disturbance of nutrition, sensation or function within either the hyper-pigmented or depigmented skin.

Astrologically, there are many planetary combinations which produce leucoderma to the native. If the combination of the Moon, Mars and Saturn is placed in Aries or Taurus, the native may be attacked with leucoderma. If Saturn is placed in the 12th house, Mars in the 2nd, the Moon in the ascendant and the Sun in the 7th, the native be attacked with this disease. The lord of the ascendant or the Moon and Mars if afflicted by Rahu or Ketu produce leucoderma, Combination of the lord of the ascendant, the Moon and Mercury if afflicted by Rahu or Ketu may give leucoderma. Venus governs our skin and facial beauty. Venus if posited in the ascendant makes the native beautiful, good looking, fair complexioned, etc.


Turquoise-StoneVenus if debilitated or afflicted by =Idles in a watery sign or posited in her enemy's sign, gives leucoderma. This gives severe affliction. Some astrologers opine that Mercury also rules over our skin. He gives all sorts of skin diseases. Mercury if posited in his enemy's sign or debilitated and afflicted by 2/3 malefics may cause leucoderma. The Moon and Venus if conjoined in a watery sign (Cancer, Scorpio or Pisces) may give leucoderma.

In such cases, the native is required to wear two stones, viz., I. Diamond 1/2 of a ratti and 2. Emerald in 4 rattis on madhyama, Light Blue Sapphire can also be used.

Malaria
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease. The characteristic symptoms of malaria are shivering, chills, high fever and profuse sweating, often accompanied by headache, nausea, mental confusion and extreme thirst. The attacks are periodic. The attacks may come daily, every other day or at intervals of four days. Because the parasite attacks the red blood cells, Anemia and enlargement of the spleen are common consequences. The anopheles mosquito is the main carrier of this disease. The treatment of malaria depended for centuries on the quinine contained in the bark of certain trees. Atabrine, quinacrine, primaquine, chloroquine are widely used as remedy for malarial fever. Mars in Leo causes malaria. Mercury in Leo afflicted by Saturn also causes the same disease. Use Red Coral and Moonstone.

Measles
It is a childhood disease which is also infectious. It is one of the most contagious diseases known. It is of greatest risk to children between 6 months to 5 years of age. It is said measles catches from measles; that is from exposure to the oral or nasal discharge of an individual who has the disease. The incubation period of measles is from 7 to 14 days. The usual symptoms are the nose runs, the eyes turn red and watery, a hard dry cough with fever. Pneumonia, bronchitis and ear abscesses often come just after the rash appears in most cases. Mars is the main planet which causes this disease. Use Red Coral, red cloth, red thread and a copper ring.

Menstrual disorders
Menstruation normally occurs every 28 days counted from the first day of the menstrual flow. A truly missed period may indicate pregnancy, but it is always not so. The cycle may be upset by disease or physical shock or emotional excitement. The Moon is the main planet which governs the uterus, ovary, and fallopian tubes.

Ruby-Stone
Mars is responsible for starting the flow by causing breakage of the uterine tissue but the actual flow and its duration is controlled by the Moon. The Sun comes next when the conception takes place. Generally the onset of the menses Therapeutic use of gems 161 occurs when Mars during transit aspects the Moon-sign which is quite enough to excite the flow. Both delivery of the child and menstrual flow are controlled by the Moon. The moon is all-in-all in a female horoscope. She governs the breasts, stomach, mind, mental structure, reproductive and sex organs, marriage relationship, conjugal happiness and child's health. So a single gem, White Pearl in 10/12 rattis, is sufficient to give sound health. In case of profuse bleeding, use Red Coral, as an additional gem.

Mental illness
Mental illness means temporary distortions of mental faculties such as memory and power of concentration. It does not mean real and permanent deterioration of the intellect. Mental illness is not mental deficiency but temporary dislocation of mental faculties and losing one's grip. Many people who suffer from mental illness are far above normal in intelligence. The Moon, Mercury and Saturn are the three main rulers. The 3rd and 9th houses from the ascendant are the mental signs. The signs Gemini, Virgo and Aquarius also rule over our mind and mental structure. Any affliction of these signs and houses by malefics will give rise to mental disturbances. Even simple association of Saturn or Rahu with the Moon causes mental ailments. When Mars afflicts the Sun or Mercury in Gemini or Virgo, the native will invariably suffer from lunacy. Use Emerald, Moonstone and Yellow Sapphire. Red Coral may be required in acute cases.

Paralysis
It is loss of muscle function usually due to damage to the nerves that control the muscles. The impairment of function may be minor or extreme; temporary or permanent. It is usually caused by a stroke, polio, paralysis, muscular distrophy, etc. Here the chief planets are Mercury who governs the nerves and Saturn, which causes paralysis.

The gems to be used are Red Coral and Emerald. Moonstone may be used as an additional gem.

Piles
Haemorrhoids or piles are swollen or varicose veins situated just inside or outside or across the walls of the anus. The presence of bleeding piles is usually observed just after a bowel movement. It sometimes accompanied by an itching sensation around the anus. Its causes are numerous constipation, over-weight, sedentary living habits and liver troubles. The 7th and 8th house from the ascendant govern sexual parts anus, rectum. The sign Scorpio controls our anus and rectum. Malefics in the 7th and 8th, if heavily afflicted, give piles. Mars in the 8th gives bleeding piles. Saturn or Rahu in the 8th gives blind piles; Ketu in the 12th gives bleeding piles. Use red or white coral along with Moonstone.
Labradorite-stone 
Pleurisy
Pleurisy is caused by inflammation and infection of the pleura, the membrane enveloping the lungs and lining the chest cavity. It is a primary complication of tuberculosis. It may arise suddenly and linger on for a long time. The usual symptoms are sharp pains in the lungs followed by chills, fever, dry cough and difficult breathing. The signs Gemini and Leo govern our lungs. Jupiter and Mars in Gemini or Leo afflicted by Saturn or Rahu give rise to this trouble. Use Red Coral and Yellow Sapphire. Emerald may be used at night.

Pneumonia
Inflammation of the lungs is known as pneumonia. If both the lungs are involved, it is called double pneumonia. It appears specially in the winter months and any change of weather causes this trouble. The usual symptoms are shivering chills, high and rising fever, sharp pains in the chest, a painful cough and blood-flecked sputum. The Sun, Jupiter or Mars during transit when coming in Gemini, Leo or Aquarius if afflicted by malefics may give rise to this trouble. Use Red Coral and Yellow Sapphire. White Coral may be used as an additional gem if necessary.

Smallpox
It is a virus disease and is also called variola. The usual symptoms are high fever, pain, presence of small pits or pockmarks on the skin, particularly on the face. The incubation period for smallpox is from 2 to 3 weeks after exposure. It is a Mars disease. Use Red Coral, red cloth, red thread and a copper ring.

Syphilis
This is a venereal disease and is also called bad blood. This is caused by sexual intercourse with a syphilitic person. It is spread by direct contact with infected people. It is a very dangerous disease. The 7th or 8th house from the ascendant governs our private parts. Mars and Venus if heavily afflicted in any one of these houses may give rise to this trouble. Use Red and White Coral.

Tuberculosis
It is commonly known as consumption, phthisis, white plague. It is an infectious disease caused by the tubercular bacillus. Once the tubercle bacillus enters the body, it may settle in any part bones, joints, bladder, spine, lungs, kidneys and glands. But in most cases, the affected parts are the lungs. Surgery is essential in this disease in order to remove the affected part. The Moon, Saturn or Jupiter in Leo, Gemini or Aquarius heavily afflicted by Mars or Ketu may give rise to this trouble. Use Red Coral and Yellow Sapphire. White Pearl may be used as an additional gem in acute cases.

Typhoid fever
yellow-sapphire
It is an enteric or intestinal fever. The common sites of attack are the spleen and bowels. The usual symptoms are high fever, splitting headache, rose-red splotches on the skin, extreme prostration, bloody stools, diarrhoea and dysentery. But the main symptom is acute diarrhoea with fever. Jupiter, Mars and Mercury are responsible for causing this trouble. Mars or Jupiter when comes in Cancer or Virgo if heavily afflicted by Mercury or Ketu may give rise to this trouble. Use Emerald, Yellow Sapphire and Moonstone.

Whooping cough
It is a serious childhood disease. The infecting microbe is a bacillus. The source of infection is discharge of other infected children. The incubation period is normally one week but unfortunately this disease can linger on up to two months. Use Red Coral, red cloth, red thread and a copper ring.

As age advances, spontaneous deterioration of all parts of the body mechanism will occur. Gems can provide permanent recovery and may keep everybody young.

Gems are generally used as a second line of defence against any disease.

During the winter months, most old people suffer from respiratory trouble. The force of the heart is gradually diminished, with the result that it pumps less blood with each beat. Bronchial and pulmonary infections are a common cause of death in elderly people.

However, pulmonary tuberculosis has been brought under control. Autopsy and chronic bronchitis are still taking away many lives.

Chronic bronchitis kills more old people than pulmonary tuberculosis, lobar pneumonia, etc. This is more common in males than in females. The heart is under the control of several planets. The most important ones are the Sun, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury.

Combined use of Red Coral, Emerald and White Pearl will be found useful here. Sometimes Blue Sapphire is also required.

Kidney
In old age, kidneys become weak and the formation of urine is somewhat less. Frequency of micturition, especially at night, may be due to hypersensitiveness of the urinary bladder or prostate enlargement in the case of males.

There may be occasional dribbling, i.e. inability to with old the flow of urine. It is a sign of bladder trouble. Bladder trouble is usually indicated by abnormalities in passing urine, especially frequency, urgency and pain.

Infection and inflammation of the bladder are generally associated with infection in other parts of the urinary system. Two planets, Mars and Venus, generally govern the kidneys and the urinary system. Combined use of Red Coral, White Coral (both 4 rattis) and Blue Sapphire in 3 rattis will be of great help to the victim.

Muscular system
Blue-Sapphire
Due to loss of weight, the efficiency of the skeletal muscles gradually diminishes after 50 years. The efficiency of the voluntary as well as involuntary muscles also is gradually diminished as age advances. Astrologically, Mercury controls and governs the entire nervous system. Saturn also plays an important role in ruling over the nervous system. Mars governs the muscles in our body. So in old age, combined use of Red Coral in 4 rattis on anamika, Emerald in 5 rattis on madhyama and Blue Sapphire in 3 rattis on kanista would give wonderful results.

Older people also suffer from partial deafness or loss of hearing. The most common form of ear trouble is the accumulation of wax in the ear which causes burning, pain and deafness.

Saturn governs the ear and the Blue Sapphire may be used to remove deafness.
Blue Sapphire should be used along with Red Coral.

Diseases and gems in netshell

Diseases
Gems
Alcoholism

Allergies

Anaemia

Appendicitis

Arthritis

Asthma

Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Blood circulation

Bladder Ailments

Body Pains

Brain Tumours

Bronchitis

Breast Cancer

Cancer

Cold, Sinus

Colic

Conjunctivitis

Depressive Psychosis

Diabetes

Dyspepsia

Dental problem

Epilepsy

Erythroblastosis Foetails

Eyesight ailments

Eczema

Fantasies

Fevers

Flatulence

Gallstones

Giddiness

Gout

Haemorrhage

Heart ailments

Headaches

Hernia

Hyperacidity

Hysteria



Headaches, wind acidity

Hepatitis

Infections, General

Insanity

Insomnia

Impotency

Jaundice, liver disorder

Kidney ailment

Leucorrhoea

Leprosy (Initial stage)

Menstrual Disorders

Mental ailments

Migraine

Nervous disorder

Osteosclerosis otitis media

Paralysis

Piles

Pleurisy

Pyorrhoea

Sinus

Schizophrenia

Septicemia

Skin diseases

Spondyl

Stomach ulcers or

Stomach disorders

Stomatitis

Tuberculosis

Throat infections

Vatha

Vertigo

Urinary disorder

Weakness

Kalkelu (Neelam), Blue Sapphire, Amethyst plus White Sapphire.
Cat's Eye, Gomed, Chrysoberyl

Yellow Sapphire plus

Red Coral Red Coral or Yellow Sapphire

Red Coral + Labradorite

(i) Chrysoberyl (ii) Emerald in gold plus Yellow Sapphire plus
Moonstone in silver (iii) White Pearl
Garnet, Ruby, Blue Sapphire, Ruby, Emerald

Heart and indigestion, Ruby, Garnet

Red Coral (Moonga) and Yellow Sapphire

Garnet, Blue Sapphire

(i) Gorned and Emerald (ii) Emerald Emerald in copper or

Red Coral and Yellow Sapphire

Gomed and Emerald, Red Coral in copper plus Emerald and Blue Sapphire
Gomed in copper plus Cat's Eye

Gomed

Cat's Eye, Kidney Stone (Dana farang)

Blue Sapphire

Emerald and Moonstone

White coral, White Sapphire, Emerald

Emerald

Red Coral, Lapis Lazuli

Emerald, Yellow Sapphire and Pearl or Moonstone in silver

Emerald

Ruby

White Coral plus Yellow Sapphire

Onyx

Pearl, Cat's Eye

Emerald

Emerald in gold plus Blue Sapphire preferably in punchadhatu ( metals)
Pearl, Quartz

Perth

Cat's Eye

Blue Sapphire, Turquoise, Ruby or Emerald or Diamond

Blue Sapphire, Turquoise, Jade

Red Coral in copper plus Yellow Sapphire

In gold Emerald

i) Amethyst and topaz ii) Red Coral plus Yellow Sapphire (5 rattis each in gold). In acute cases additional Moonstone 6 rattis in silver

Haqiq

Emerald

Gomed

Sapphire, Emerald plus Yellow Sapphire

Moonstone or Emerald or Yellow Sapphire.

Red Coral and Yellow Sapphire in gold. Amethyst

Yellow Sapphire

(i) Jade (ii) Red Coral in copper plus Yellow Sapphire in gold (iii) Emerald or rock crystal
Turquoise

Ruby (in copper)

Amethyst and White Pearl or Moonstone

Pearl or Moonstone, Topaz (golden)

Topaz and Pearl

Emerald, Peridot, Jade

Ruby in gold

(i) Amethyst (ii) Emerald plus blue Sapphire (iii) Red Coral and Emerald in gold
Gonted Wariam stone + Pearl

Pearl

Gonzed in silver or white metal

Coral in copper or gold

Emerald (psychological disorders)

Quartz (Blood Poisoning)

Cat's Eye, Coral, gomeda

Labradorite

Moonstone or Pearl Quartz, Tiger's Eye,

Emerald

Emerald

Corat and Blue Sapphire in Gold

(i) Quartz (ii) yellow Sapphire

Blue Sapphire

Blue Sapphire (Neelanz)

Pearl, Diamond, Emerald, Red Coral, Topaz

Turquoise


Writer – Rakesh Shastri