Tuesday, 22 January 2013

Dictionary of Jewelry Words started from “A”

AA Pendant. Gold monogram pendant with inset gemstonesAA Pendant. A gold MONOGRAM PENDANT with enameling and set with TABLE CUT diamonds forming the monogram AA, and having superimposed a crown set with rubies. It is thought to have been a wedding gift in 1546 to Anna (daughter of Christian II of Denmark) from the future Elector Augustus I of Saxony -- the monogram combining their respective initials -- and to have been designed by Matthias Ziindt and made in a workshop in either Augsburg or Munich. It has been recently suggested that the occasion for the gift was more likely in 1553 when Augustus succeeded to the title as Elector, thus giving a later date to the piece. The pendant is still preserved in the Green Vault (Grunes Gewolbe), Dresden.

abalone pearl. A variety of saltwater pearl produced by the abalone (or ear shell). The pearls are usually small, but have high-quality NACRE and striking colors, such as green, yellow, and blue. The bowl-like shell of the abalone is valuable for making mother-of-pearl buttons and for inlays. See MOLLUSC SHELL. abbot's ring. A type of finger ring worn by an abbot. Such rings were usually of gold, set with a single gemstone, and worn on the third finger of the right hand. In England in medieval times they were supposed to be surrendered to the Crown on the death of the owner (see BISHOP'S RING). An abbess also was permitted to wear a ring of this type until the practice was banned by Pope Gregory XIII in 1572; thereafter an abbess wore only her NUNS RING.

Abingdon Brooch. The same as the MILTON BROOCH.

abraxas stone. A gem engraved with (1) the mystical word abraxas or abrasax, composed of seven Greek letters which, converted to numerals, totalled 365, the number of heavens of the Gnostic sect; or (2) the figure of Abraxas, a deity worshipped by the Gnostics, usually represented with the head of a cock or a lion, a human body, and legs in the form of serpents, and bearing a whip and a shield. The Gnostic cult emerged in the 2nd century Al) and was still current in the 3rd. After the engraved stones had lost their symbolic significance they were worn either as an AMULET or as a TALISMAN. See GNOSTIC SEALS.

Achaemenian jewelry. Articles of jewelry, including finger rings, ear-rings, anklets, and bracelets, attributed to the period of the Achaemenid dynasty, founded by Cyrus the Great, in Persia (c. 559 330 BC). Such articles were made of gold, sometimes with FILIGREE decoration and sometimes set with colored gemstones. A frequent decorative motif was an animal-head, comparable to those found on ANIMAL-HEAD BRACELETS of the Classical and Hellenistic periods.

acrostic jewelry. Various articles. of jewelry decorated with gemstones set in a row or a circle, the initials of the names of the stones forming a word or name, e.g. (1) two bracelets that belonged to Josephine de Beauharnais (1763-1814), later Napoleon's empress, are set with stones whose initials form the Christian names of her two children. Eugene and Horsens; (2) a gold pencil-holder made by CARL FABERGE c. 1913, set with gemstones of which the initials spell the Russian Christian name of the owner; and (3) a ring or brooch with gemstones whose initials spell 'dear' or 'dearest', or a female name, or sometimes a day of the week. The French term for such a ring is bague hieroglyphique. See HARLEQUIN RING.

Achaemenian jewelry. Gold ear-rings, 6th/5th century BC. W. 6 cm. Schmuckmuseum, Pforzheim, Germany.
acrylic jewelry. Articles of CONTEMPORARY JEWELRY made with a PLASTIC material that is used in sheet, rod or liquid resin form. The material can be molded when heated, or cut into various shapes, and has a glossy or matt appearance and wide color range. It has been used in jewelry mainly since c. 1970, especially by such DESIGNER MAKERS as DAVID WATKINS, CLAUS BURY, and SUSANNA HERON (Great Britain), and FRITZ MAIERFIOFER (Austria). It is sometimes used in conjunction with gold, and is often made in bands of various colors.

acus. (1) The pin of a FIBULA or a brooch that is either an extension of the piece itself or is attached by a hinge. (2) A needle or pin used in Roman days for fastening the hair.

Adamant. An ancient name for a diamond, derived from the Greek Adams (unconquerable). Owing to an early misconception that the word was derived from the Latin ad mare (to be attracted to), it was formerly applied to a loadstone or magnet, which led to the belief that a diamond has magnetic power.

adamantine. (1) The type of LUSTRE shown by a diamond and certain other heavy gemstones. (2) Extremely hard, as a diamond.

adder stone. A stone, highly absorbent, that was formerly believed to be efficacious in drawing out poison, as from the bite of a snake. Such stones were set in finger rings and worn as an AML;LET. Also called 'serpent stone'. See DRACONITES.

Adolph us, Gustavo, Pendant. A silver pendant in the form of a sarcophagus containing a small wooden figure of Gustavo Adolph us II (King of Sweden, 1611-32) is commemorating him after his army defeated Wallenstein at the Battle of Lutzen in 1632, in which he died. Other pendants, some of enameled gold, also commemorated the event. See MEMENTO MORI.

Adriatic jewelry. Articles of jewelry made during the 16th/17th centuries in Italy along the Adriatic coast and on the neighboring Greek islands. The pieces, often decorated with CLOISONNÉ enameling, included SHIP PENDANTS and crescent-shaped ear-rings.

Albert, Gilbert. Gold pendant watch concealed under lid with baroque pearls. adularescence. The effect in a MOONSTONE, when cut EN CABOCHON, of a pronounced SHEEN, appearing in the form of a shimmering white light, sometimes with a bluish tinge. It is due to the reflection of light from fine lamellae of orthoclase and albeit FELDSPAR . The effect is also seen in ADULARIA (from which it takes its name) and in LABRADORITE (there called labradorescence'). See AVENTURESCENCE; SCHILLER.

Adularia. A variety of orthoclase FELDSPAR found in colorless crystals. It exhibits the effect known as ADCLARESCENCE, named after the stone, which is itself named after the Alular Alps in Switzerland, a range that does not now include the St Gotthard region where the stone was first found.

Aegina Treasure. A TREASURE of MINOAN JEWELRY, usually attributed to the 17th century BC, that has been said to have been found in a Mycenaean tomb on the island of Aegina, near Athens, but that is now considered to be of Cretan origin, plundered in the 19th century from a burial enclosure at Mallia. The gold articles include necklaces, pendants, car-rings, hairpins, and diadems, some with beads of CORNELIAN, AMETHYST, and LAPIS LAZULI. Some of the pieces show Egyptian influence. The treasure was acquired in 1892 by the British Museum.

acgirine. A mineral that is intensely green and related to JADEITE; it is also related to acmite, but its crystals have blunt ends rather than pointed. It is sometimes CHATOYANT when cut EN CABOCHON.

African emerald. A local misnomer for green fluorspar found in southwest Africa.

African jade. A local misnomer for green GROSSULAR. Also called 'Transvaal jade'.

African (West) jewelry. Articles of jewelry, especially objects made of gold or ivory, from the region of west Africa extending along the Atlantic from the Ivory Coast to Nigeria, including (1) ivory BENIN JEW'ELRY from southern Nigeria, as well as that of the Ife and Essie tribes of Nigeria; (2) gold ASH.ANTI JEWELRY from the central Gold Coast (now Ghana); and (3) Baoule jewelry of gold and ivory from the Ivory Coast. In earlier times gold was generally reserved for sovereigns and their retinue, but gold articles were made also for the ruling classes and religious leaders. In the regions there were gold supplies and artisans who made jewelry of a high standard.

agate. A variety of CHALCEDONY (QUARTZ) that has a variegated color, the natural colors being (1) in intercalated bands distinctly marked from each other (called 'banded agate'), the difference in the bands being due to degrees of transparency and color and to INCLUSIONS of milky layers alternating with layers of QUARTZ, JASPER, CORNELIAN, ONYX, SARDONYX, or SARI) (see STRIPED AGATE: EYE AGATE: OWL'S•EYE AGATE; EOM IFICATION AGATE; RUIN A(;ATE); or (2) in cloud-like, moss-like, or dendrite form, due to colored inclusions or DENDRI TES, as in MOSS AGATE (MOCHA AGATE), CLOUD AGATE, FEATHER AGATE, and MOSQUITO AGATE.

Most banded agate is artificially colored; the process, for black or brown and white stones, involves steeping in a solution of honey or sugar, then soaking in sulphuric acid and applying heat so that the carbon is released and enters the absorbent parts, coloring them blackish. This is an acceptable practice if the color is fast and the trade description correct. Agate was used extensively in Egypt and Rome, in ornamental pieces and in jewelry such as beads and brooches; in the Middle Ages it was worn as an AMULET or TALISMAN. See CORNELIAN AGATE: IRIS AGATE: JASPER AGATE: OPAL AGATE: TURRITELLA AGATE.

agate jasper. The same as JASPER AGATE.

agate opal. The same as OPAL AGATE.

agatized coral. A variety of fossilized CORAL which is partly replaced by CHALCEDONY. it is made into jewelry in CABOCHON form, and is some-times dyed pink or blue.

aggry (aggri) bead. A type of bead made by cutting obliquely a varicolored glass cane (a glass rod made of several fused adjacent rods of different colors), resulting in a zigzag pattern. Such beads are of ancient manufacture and have been found buried in the Gold Coast (now Ghana).

Aliseda Treasure. Gold ear-ring with granulation.aglet. A tapering ornament of gold, silver or other metal that was worn on a garment or sometimes a hat, either tied by a short ribbon or sewn on; some were enameled or jeweled. They were usually worn in pairs or in larger numbers from 12 to 36, and were movable from one garment to another. Aglets were popular in England before and during the Elizabethan period, some having been used on head-dresses of Henry VIII. They were also worn in Germany, Bohemia, France, and Spain. See DRESS ORNAMENT.

Agnes Dei. A jewel depicting the Lamb of God as the emblem of Christ. The lamb often appears having a circular nimbus around its head and with a Latin cross and with a banner or a staff bearing a MALTESE CROSS. It has been used on several types of pendants and TALISMANS, e.g.:

(1) On a pendant, with the figure IN THE ROUND, enameled or jeweled or engraved (see DEVIZES PENDANT).

(2) As a talisman, in the form of a circular case, often of silver gilt, bearing on the front a representation of the Agnus Dei in MELLO or in REPOUSSE work, and sometimes with a corded edge. Such cases enclosed a roundel of wax bearing a stamped impression of the Agnes Dei, made from the wax of a paschal candle blessed at Rome by the Pope in the first year of his pontificate and each seventh year thereafter.

They were distributed in Europe to the faithful in the 14th/15th centuries. Some of the cases have a cover of transparent HORN on the front and back. A 15th-century example from Germany bears the name of Pope Urban VI, 1378-89. A bronze die for stamping the wax, made in Italy in the 14th century, is in the British Museum.

(3) A so-called 'Agnes Dei pendant', worn by peasants of Norway and Sweden during the 18th century, in the form of a large coin hanging from a NECK CHAIN and having suspended from the coin several smaller coins (with ornamental pieces in turn suspended from the latter), and often having cheap hanging ornaments in lieu of missing coins. Such pieces, without any representation of the Agnes Del, are said to be derived from earlier pilgrims' talismans that did bear such a representation.

agraf(f)e. A clasp or fastener for a cloak, in the form of a hook sewn on one side of the garment, to be attached to a loop or ring sewn on the other side.

aigrette. A gold or silver hat ornament or hair ornament to support a feather, or made in the form of a jeweled feather or sometimes a brooch supporting a jeweled feather. Shaped like an egret plume (hence the name), it was often almost entirely set with small gemstones, and sometimes also enameled; it might be further adorned with light, vibrating, vertical metal stalks. A slide or a vertical pin was occasionally provided, enabling the ornament to be worn in the hair or attached to a head-dress. Aigrettes were in use from the 17th century until the late 18th, and again in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. See TREMBLANT: GIKA OF NADIR SHAH.

aiguillette (French, from aiguilles, needle). A brooch or ear-ring decorated with a series of cascading gemstones of diminishing size, terminating in a thin, tapering, pointed stone. The style is known as EN PAMPILLES

Ajjul Hoard. A HOARD, including articles of gold and silver jewelry, found at Tell el -Ajjul, near Gaza, in Israel, by Sir Flinders Petrie (1853 1942), and suggested by him to have been concealed by a local jeweler pending melting for remodeling. The articles (pendants, ear-rings, AMULETS in the form of a fly, and TOGGLES) include examples of Bronze Age Canaanite art, in which Egyptian motifs are blended with local traditions. The decoration of some pieces is in GRANULATED GOLD. See ASTARTE PENDANT: FLY JEWELRY; CENOTAPH, TREASURE OF THE.

ajoure work. An OPENWORK pattern, e.g. one formed by cutting holes in a metal sheet. See JOUR, A; OPUS INTERRASILE.

Akbar. See KING CORAL.

Akbar Shah Diamond. A famous Indian diamond formerly owned by the Great Mogul of India, Akbar Shah (1542-1605), and once having engraved on it, by order of his grandson and successor, Shah Jahan, the Arabic inscriptions translated as 'Shah Akbar, Shah of the World, 1028' (an incorrect date) and 'To the Lord of Two Worlds, Shah Jahan, 1039', the Hegira dates corresponding to Al) 1618 and 1629. The stone is said to have been taken to Persia by Nadir Shah when he sacked Delhi in 1739, but it disappeared until 1866, when it reappeared in Constantinople.

called then the 'Shepherd Stone'. It was recognized by the inscriptions and was bought by George Blog, a London merchant, who had it recut in London into a pear-shaped stone, reducing its weight from 116 old carats to 713/1 old carats and destroying the inscriptions. In 1867 it was sold to the Gaekwar of Baroda, after which date nothing is known of it. For other engraved diamonds, see ENGRAVED GEMSTONES.

alalite. A variety of DIOPSIDE that is light green.

Alaska diamond. A local misnomer for ROCK CRYSTAL

amulet box. Gold set with turquoises. Tibetan, 18th century. W. 5.1 cm. British Museum, London.Albert, Gilbert (1930- ). A leading Swiss DESIGNER MAKER of jewelry. He has designed jeweled WATCH CASES, being Chief Designer for the firm Patek Philippe from 1954 and later for Omega. In 1962 he opened his own workshop in Geneva, and in 1965 was the first modern artist ever to have a one-man show at Goldsmiths Hall in London. He has specialized in abstract gold jewelry and has, since 1964, to enhance the overall effect, incorporated in the design fragments of METEORITES and other objects of little intrinsic value; among such pieces are necklaces in the form of loose nets.

Albert chain. A gold or silver WATCH CHAIN of a broad class of chains characterized by having a swivel on at least one end and by being worn usually across a man's waistcoat from pocket to pocket, threaded through a waistcoat buttonhole, or more often secured to it by a short attached bar. Such chains are made in a great variety of types, with many styles and groupings of the links; they include mass-produced, machine-made chains of standardized forms and nomenclature (e.g. CURB CHAIN. FETEER CHAIN, MACE CHAIN), as well as hand-made chains of original design.

Usually a watch was worn at one end and a key, WATCFI KEY, SEAL. FAUSSE MONTRE, sovereign case or other article on the other end. Such chains, named after Prince Albert, Consort of Queen Victoria, were popular from the mid-19th century, and they are still often used by men when wearing a waistcoat. Sometimes a version of the Albert chain was worn by women, in which case it was more ornate and often composed of two strands, having inserted at the centre a gold ornamental section.

Alencon diamond. A misnomer for a type of brilliant smoky QUARTZ found at Alencon, in France. Such stones were used on the NORMAN CROSS. The French term is Pierre d'Alencon.

Aleppo stone. The same as EYE AGATE. It was so called on account of the power attributed to it in the Orient of curing a sore known as an 'Aleppo boil'.

alexandrite. A variety of CI IRYSOBERYL. Due to the presence of oxide of CHROMIUM, it appears dull grass-green by daylight (which is rich in blue rays), but by electric light it appears yellowish or reddish-yellow, and by soft candle-light (which is rich in red rays) it appears reddish. It is highly diachronic. Its original source was near Yekaterinburg, in the Ural Mountains of Russia. The stone was discovered there in 1830, the year Alexander II came of age; hence it was named after him.

The variety now found in Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) changes from dark olive-green to brownish-red; it is larger than that of Russia (which is bluer) but less valuable. The stone is imitated by SYNTHETIC SPINEL and in great quantities by SYNTHETIC CORUNDUM (both incorrectly marketed as SYNTHETIC ALEXANDRITE); these are produced so as to show the changing colors. See ANDALUSITE.

Alfred Jewel. A renowned Anglo-Saxon pear-shaped object whose central ornament, set on a gold plate, is a CLOISONNE. Enamel portrait covered by a beveled plate of ROCK CRYSTAL and surrounded by a gold, sloping, openwork rim that terminates in a socket containing a cross-rivet to secure it to a shaft. The portrait is of a half-length male figure holding in each hand a SCEVIRE or wand with a floral head.

In the openwork around the rim there is, in gold letters, the Saxon inscription 'AF.I.FRF.D MEC HEHT GEWYRCAN. ('Alfred ordered me to be made'), thought to refer to King Alfred, 871-901. The lower part, in GRANULATED GOLD, is in the form of a boar's head, from whose snout projects the hollow socket. The portrait, against a dark-blue ground, is in green, brown, and white. On the reverse is a flat, gold plate bearing elaborate engraved foliage and scale decoration. The piece is probably of late-9th-century workmanship, possibly by a Winchester or Glastonbury jeweler, or a European attached to the royal court.

It was found in 1693 at Newton Park, three miles from the Isle of Athelney, Somerset, where Alfred had fled from the Danes in 878 and is said to have hidden or lost the jewel. It was presented to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, in 1718 by Thomas Palmer. There has been much speculation as to the purpose of the jewel, whether the head of a scepter, the jewel of a crown, or the tip of an aestel (a pointer for indicating the lines of a manuscript), possibly the same one to which was attached the MINSTER LOVEL JEWEL.

The figure has been variously ascribed to Christ, the Pope, Alfred, or a saint, but is possibly an allegorical representation of Sight. Copies have been made, with the portrait printed on paper covered by glass. See J. R. Kirk, the Alfred and Minster Lovell Jewels (1948).
Alhstan Ring. A gold Saxon finger ring, whose hoop is in the form of four small roundels (decorated with birds and monsters) alternating with four LOZENGE-shaped ornaments, all decorated in NIELLO. The roundels are inscribed with the letters A 1.11 SI A (the last followed by a runic rv), being the name of the presumed owner, Bishop Alhstan of Sherburne (824-67). It was found probably in 1753 at Llys faen, in Caernarvonshire (now Gwyneth), Wales, and is in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London. See ETHELSWITII RING: ETHELWULI. RING

Aliseda Treasure. A TREASURE found in 1920 in the village of La Aliseda, near Caceres, Spain, that included gold articles decorated with GRANULATED GOLD and FILIGREE in openwork designs, attributed to Phoenician-Punic sources, of the 7th/6th centuries BC. Much of it is now in the Museo Arqueologico Nacional in Madrid. See PHOENICIAN JEWELRY.

Alleberg Collar. A gold, circular, rigid COLLAR made in two hinged sections, each of three concentric tubes completely decorated with adjacent rings, FILIGREE. Work, and GRANULATED COLD. One section is composed of hollow tubes, the other of solid rods, with the ends of the latter fitting into the former to make a circle when the piece is closed. The space between the tubes is further decorated with small animals and faces cut from gold plates. It is from Scandinavia, from the Migration period of the 6th century, before the coming of the Vikings, and was found at All berg, in Sweden. A similar collar, but with five circular tubes, was found at Farjestaden, Oland, Sweden.

Allegorical subjects. Symbolic subjects used decoratively in jewelry and portrayed by figures often identifiable by traditional attributes accompanying them, e.g. 'Justice and Peace' and 'Prudence and Simplicity' (both depicted on pendants inspired by woodcuts by JOST AM MAN), 'The Five Senses' (see FULLER BROOCH), and 'Charity' (see CHARITY PENDANT).

Alloy. A mixture of two or more compatible metals (or sometimes a metal and a non-metal, e.g. steel, an alloy of iron and carbon), made by being fused into each other to form a homogeneous mass, the resultant new metal usually being harder, more durable and more fusible than the components but less malleable and of a different color. Non-compatible metals (e.g. nickel and silver) cannot be alloyed because they will not dissolve into each other. Some alloys are formed by nature (e.g. ELF.CTROM), but most are man-made to increase strength or workability, or to alter color. e.g. a base metal mixed with a precious metal. Alloys made of various metals and in various proportions to meet different industrial needs are made by refiners and sold to makers of jewelry, e.g. gold and silver SOLDER.

Alma chain. A type of CHAIN composed of broad links having a ribbed surface.

animal-head bracelet. Gold with overlapping shank having rain's-head terminals and twisted shank. 4th/3rd centuries BC:. Museo Nazionale, Taranto, Italy.
almandine. A variety of GARNET that is transparent and commonly deep crimson with tinges of purple. Its color may resemble that of RUBY. It is cut in several forms; when cut EN CABOCHON (usually as hollow cabochon to lighten the color), it is called CARBUNCLE. Some stones are shaped in India by TUMBLING, and sometimes now are faceted. The main sources are Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon), Fort Wrangle in Alaska, and India. An alternative name is `almandine'. A sub-variety has INCLUSIONS of NEEDLES of foreign substances, which sometimes form a weak 4-pointed or 6-pointed star (see ASTERISM); such stones are called 'star almandine'. See ALMAND1NE SPINEL; RHODOLITE.

almandine spinel. A misnomer for purple-red varieties of SPINEL (ALNIANDINE being a variety of GARNET) which resemble the almandine in color.

almandite. (I) The same as ALMANDINE. (2) A misnomer for SYNTHETIC SPINEL, which sometimes resembles the almandine (almandine).

Altenstetter, David (d. 1617). A goldsmith from Colmar who settled in Augsburg and became a Master Goldsmith in 1583. In 1610 he was invited to Prague by Rudolf II to become Court Jeweler, and worked there until his death. His work often featured BASSE 'FAILLE enameling. and some pieces made by his workshop are decorated with birds, fruit, and flowers.

aluminum (in the United States, aluminum). A bluish silver-white metal that is very light, very malleable, ductile, and resistant to OXIDATION. The metal was originally called by Sir Humphrey Davy 'aluminum'; the name was changed soon after to 'aluminum', but was then made 'aluminum' in England to conform to the names of other elements such as 'barium'. In the early decades after its discovery it was more highly prized than gold, and was used in some jewelry made for Empress Eugenie, some articles being displayed at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. It is now used in jewelry only for COSTUME JEWELRY and JUNK JEWELRY, some such pieces being given a colored finish since the introduction of anodizing.

amalgam. An ALLOY of GOLD or SILVF.R with mercury that can be applied to the surface of a base metal (or porcelain) and when it is fired to a point when the mercury vaporizes, a gold residue will be left. This is the classical method of GILDING metals, known as 'fire gilding' or 'mercury gilding'.

Amaryl. A trade-name for a variety of SYNTHETIC CORUNDUM that is light green. The name is said to have been suggested by the color of the leaves of Amaryllis belladonna, the South African belladonna lily.

Amazon jade. A misnomer for the green variety of AMAZONSTONE that has a slight resemblance to JADE.
Amazon stone (or amazonite). A variety of FELDSPAR of the microcline series; its color ranges from vivid green to blue-green and when turned in the light it sometimes appears to have been sprinkled with stardust. It is opaque, with a pearly sl WEN and may show ADULARESCENCE. Amazon stone is never faceted but cut EN CABOCHON: it is used in finger rings and as beads. The name is derived from the Amazon, perhaps as some specimens have been found in Minas Gera is, Brazil. It is sometimes called by the misnomer 'Amazon jade'.

Art Nouveau. Pendant with crystal head set in silver with baroque pearl. Rene Lalique. L. 9.8 cm. Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon. amber. An amorphous translucent or opaque fossilized natural resin from an extinct variety of pine tree (Pinus succinfera) submerged under the sea some 60,000,000 years ago. It is light in weight, warm to the touch, very brittle, and electrified when rubbed. Its color covers a wide range, usually from pale yellow and honey to reddish-brown, brown, red, and almost black; but some is whitish (see BONE AMBER). Some pieces show two colors, and these have sometimes been cut as CAMEOS. The best-quality amber is clear, but some is cloudy (see BASTARD AMBER), some pieces include 'stress marks' giving a crackled appearance, and some rare specimens contain embedded insects or other organic or inorganic material trapped in prehistoric times.

Amber is soft but tough, hence often intricately carved (especially in China) and sometimes faceted. It has been used mainly for articles with a smooth and polished surface, e.g. beads, finger rings, and bracelets. Many such pieces have been made in Tibet, Mongolia, and Ethiopia (the amber having been transported there); amber was also used for such pieces in England during the Celtic and Victorian eras. It has been used as a TALISMAN and as an ornament in jewelry since the Bronze Age; it was also so used by the ancient Greeks, Romans, Etruscans, Phoenicians, Persians, Byzantines, Vikings, Celts, Saxons, Chinese, and Japanese, and then again in the 19th century in Russia and the Baltic states. Amber is of two main varieties:

(1) sea amber (SUCCINITE), pieces of which are washed up along certain shores, especially the Baltic Sea near Kaliningrad, and also along the shores of eastern England and the Netherlands (from the Lower Tertiary beds buried beneath the North Sea);

(2) pit amber, mined from Oligocene deposits in Burma (called BURMITE). Other sources are Sicily (called SIMETITE), Romania (called ROUMANITE), Danzig (called GEDANITF.), and Mexico. Amber boiled in suitable oils changes from opaque to clear and also in color. In modern times it has been used for tobacco-pipe stems and for cigar- and cigarette-holders. Various substitutes have been developed in recent years; see AMBROID: COPAL; KAURI GUM.

Imitations have also been made using PI.ASTIC; these are distinguishable by their greater specific gravity, by the fact that in a strong brine solution they sink while amber would float, and by amber's characteristic smell when heated. Amber has also been imitated in GLASS, sometimes with faked inserted insects. Amber has no connection with AMBERGRIS. The German term for amber is Bernstein, the French amber. See G. C. Williamson. The Book of Amber (1932); Rosa Hunger, The Magic of Amber (1977).

amber opal. A variety of OPAL that is brownish colored, due to the presence of iron oxide.

ambergris. A waxy substance (having no relationship with AMBER) that is found floating in the Indian Ocean and other tropical waters, believed to be the secretion of the sperm whale. Its color is white, grey, yellow or black, often variegated. Ambergris is used mainly as a fixative for perfumery, and rarely employed in jewelry. A few known examples include figures carved in ambergris (one built over a silver core) by Dutch jewelers of the Mannerist period; one is a pendant with a group depicting Charity with three children, formerly in the Morgan Collection and now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and a similar piece is in the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore.

amberine. A variety of MOSS AGATE that is yellowish-green.

Amblygonite. A mineral that produces crystals suitable as gemstones. They are colorless ranging to shades of pale yellow. It is brittle but is cut with FACETS or EN CABOCHON. The name is derived from the Greek amblygonios (obtuse-angled), after the angle in which it cleaves.

amberoid (or amberoid). A substance made, in the manner of a RECON STRUCTED STONE, by heating small pieces of true amber and fusing them under pressure. It closely resembles natural amber in appearance and physical properties, but is distinguishable by its embedded, elongated bubbles and by the visible fusion lines. Also sometimes called 'pressed amber'.

Assurbanipal Bracelet. Gold with appliqué relief depicting return from the hunt. John Broaden. L. 7 cm. Victoria & Albert Museum, London.
American brilliant cut. A modification of the BRILLIANT CUT of a diamond in which the width of the TABLE is reduced so as to be only one-third of the width of the stone, and the height of the CROWN is increased to be about two-thirds that of the PAVILION. The number of BEZEL FACETS on the crown is increased by adding a row of 8 small facets abutting the table, making a total of 40 facets on the crown, in addition to the table. The style of the cut was developed by Henry D. Morse and other American cutters, and the angles of the facets were confirmed in 1919 by Marcel Tolkowsky (a mathematician who published a treatise on the correct manner of cutting a brilliant) as the 'ideal cut', most effective to maximize the BRILLIANCE at some cost of lost weight: but see EUROPEAN BRILLIANT CUT.


American jade. A misnomer for CALIFORNITE.

American ruby. A misnomer for PYROPE GARNET. American setting. A type of SETFING for a diamond or other transparent gemstone that has a high MOUNT and is pierced A JOUR.

amethyst. A variety of QUARTZ that is transparent and CRYSTALLINE, usually deep purple to pale bluish-violet; the hues are sometimes mingled in the same stone, owing to irregular color zoning. anti some show patches of yellow. Other colors are reddish-mauve (Siberian stones), reddish-violet (Uruguayan stones) or grey-mauve (Mexican stones). When natural amethysts (not the variety from Madagascar) are heated, the color changes to pale yellow (sometimes then mistaken for CITRINE, but distinguishable by its dichroism); when the heat is increased, it changes to dark yellow or reddish-brown and, when increased further, to milky white.

Some Brazilian amethysts when heated change color to green (see GREENED AMETHYST; PRASIOLITE). Specimens containing INCLUSIONS of goethite or other fibrous minerals are polished as CATS-EYES. Amethysts have been set in globular or pear-shaped PENDANTS and as pierced BEADS for necklaces and ear-drops. Some large stones have been embellished by having set into them a design of small diamonds. See AMETHYST QUARTZ: STAR AMETHYST: CAIRNGORM: SARK STONE.

amethyst quartz. A variety of AMETHYST that is banded with INCLUSIONS of MILKY QUARTZ or AGATE. amethystine. A variety of QUARTZ or GLASS with patches of purple or violet color.

Amherst Brooch. A COMPOSITE BROOCH of which the front is gold. Decorated with FILIGREE work and with CLOISONS forming cells of step. quatrefoil and triangular form, and the back is of silver set with a central garnet. The cells were set with garnets, now missing, over chequered gold foil. Four of the eight triangular cells are set with green glass. Between the two parts a white substance is now visible where the brooch was damaged as a result of being dropped in 1859 by Lord Amherst. the then owner. It resembles the KINGSTON BROOCH, but is greatly inferior in quality of workmanship. The brooch is Anglo-Saxon, of the early 7th century, and was found many years ago in a grave in Kent. It is sometimes called the 'Sarre ll Brooch' to distinguish it from the SARRE DISC BROOCH in the British Museum. See MONK ION BROOCH.

Amman, Jost (1539-91). A woodcut illustrator whose designs have been said to have inspired several pieces of gold enameled jewelry. Born in Zurich, the brother of a goldsmith, he settled in 1560 in Nuremberg, where he became attached to VIRGIL SOLIS and, upon the latter's death in 1562, completed some of his engraving work, thereafter continuing as an illustrator. In 1577 he left Zurich to return to Nuremberg. He produced two notable books (one titled Ein neuw Thierbuch) that were published in Frankfurt in 1569 and 1578. with drawings of figures of horseback couples, angels, animals and ALLEGORICAL SUBJECTS; some have been identified with jeweled and enameled gold pendants depicting such figures IN 'ME ROUND.

These pendants have been said to have been executed by unidentified German jewelers at Munich, Augsburg. and Nuremberg in the second half of the 16th century, though one probably by GIOVANNI BKITISTA SCOLARI (see SLEI(;H-RIDE PENDANT). See Yvonne Hackenbroch, 'Renaissance Pendants after Designs by Jost Amman', in Connoisseur, September 1965, p. 58.

Ammonite. A variety of mollusk that existed 130,000,000 years ago and whose shell was in the form of a flat, snail-like spiral with interior compartments. The fossil, polished to reveal the interior structure, was sometimes mounted, c. 1850, in gold, silver or jet, and worn as a brooch or pendant, especially those found in abundance in Dorset, England, and some western regions of the United States.

amorphous. Without any CRYSTALLINE. Structure, e.g. OPAL and GLASS. See MASSIVE.

Amulet. An object (such as a brooch, finger ring. bracelet, reliquary or pendant) or a gemstone believed to have special supernatural qualities and worn primarily for its supposed ability to ward off evil, witchcraft or illness, but sometimes to bring good fortune. Such pieces often bore an inscription, e.g. the names of the Magi (see THREE KINGS) ) or a symbol. In China, as early as the Shang-Yin Dynasty (c. 1766 1122 BO, a large variety of JADE AMULETS were made in the form of carved animals and pendants.

Early Egyptian examples were made of glass, c. 1375 BC, and were often in the form of an actual or mythological animal. Etruscan amulets were decorated with various symbols and later Roman ones are known, often enclosed in a BULLA in the form of a finger ring. They were also worn in Europe throughout the Middle Ages and the 16th century. See CHARM: TALISMAN; DEITY AMULET: HAND AMULET; I IIGA; TAU CROSS: MAGICAL JEWELRY.

amulet box. A small container in the form of a box with a cover and an attachment for a suspensor cord. Such boxes were worn in Tibet for protection, especially when travelling. They contained a stamped plaque with Buddhist images or wood-block printed charms on paper or cloth, or charms of grains or pebbles. One example from the 18th century is said to have been worn on the pigtail of an officials servant. See AMULET; AMULEE CASE.

amulet case. A hollow container in which was kept an AMULET. Examples made in Persia from the 2nd century to the 11th were cylindrical or of polygonal section, about 2.5 to 7.5 cm long, having top loops for suspension rings so that it could be hung by a cord; some were made of gold or silver, decorated with REPE work, sometimes having shaped openwork set with gemstones and open ends closed by a cap. A Phoenician example, 7th/6th century BC, has, above a hollow cylinder, a zoomorphic figure decorated with GRANULATED GOLD and CLOISONS. See AMULET BOX: CYLINDRICAL AMULET CASE.

amygdaloid. Almond-shaped, hence the name from the Greek amygdale (almond), such as some beads and engraved gems of MINOAN JEWELRY and MYCENAEAN JEWELRY

anatase. A gemstone that may be transparent and brownish (cut with PACE:TS) or opaque and blue (cut EN CABOCHON). The name is derived from the Greek anatasis (stretching out), referring to the length of the crystals. Also called OCTAHEDRITE.

andalusite. A mineral that, when translucent and green or reddish-green, is used as a gemstone. It is found in other colours, e.g. grey, and reddish- to yellowish-brown. It has strong dichroism which causes it to show green when viewed in one direction, but brownish-red in another, thus resembling ALEXANDRITE, except that the green colour is not affected by artificial light. Andalusite with streaky INCLUSIONS shows CHATOYANCY and is cut EN CABOCIION; when translucent it is faceted. It was first found in Andalusia. See oliAsToLITE.

Andamooka Opal. A WHITE OPAL in the form of an oval CABOCHON weighing 203 carats and having brilliant fire. It was cut from a stone weighing rough 170 grams (6 oz) that was found in 1949 at Andamooka, South Australia. When presented in March 1954 to Queen Elizabeth ll by the government of South Australia, it was set in a palladium necklet with two other white opals and 180 diamonds.

andradite. A common variety of GARNET that is found in several colours, e.g. green, yellow, red, brown, and black, some of which are sub-varieties with special names: DEMANTOID (green), MELANITE (black), and TOPAZOL1TE (yellow). It was named after J. B. de Andrade e Silva (1763-1838), a Portuguese mineralogist.

Anglo-Saxon jewelry. Articles of jewelry made in Britain between the Roman Occupation and the Norman Conquest (i.e. 5th century to 1066), during which period races of Germanic origin invaded and settled, mainly in East Anglia, Mercia, Wessex, Northumbria, and Kent. The jewelry of the period, especially the SUT ION 1100 TREASURE, has been recovered mainly from burial sites. It is usually made of gold, silver or bronze, ornamented (with great technical skill) with FILIGREE or GRANULATED GOLD and inlaid with garnets and coloured glass, or with enamelling.

The pieces were intended mainly as personal ornaments for the women, and included a great variety of brooches, PINS. FIBULAE, CROSSES, BRACTEA ITS, and finger rings, but also elaborate BELT BUCKLES, SWORD HARNESSES, etc.; the most famous piece is the ALFRED JEWEL. The decoration is characterized by a lack of naturalism, with no accurate portrayals of human or animal figures, and the patterns are usually abstract interlaced designs or with distorted animal forms. The designs were influenced by Scandinavian and Germanic art. See Ronald Jessup, Anglo-Saxon Jewellery (1974).

animal-head bracelet. A type of bracelet that is a rigid PENANNULAR ring (sometimes with the terminals touching or overlapping), having both terminals in the form of a head, IN "HIE ROUND, of an animal (e.g. bull, lion, ram, snake). Such bracelets were made in ACHAEMENIAN JEWELRY and in the jewelry of the Classical and Hellenistic periods, c. 500 BC-AD 300. The SHANKS were made in a number of forms, e.g. (a) a solid metal circular rod; (b) wire coiled around a core; (c) a hollow tube made of tightly twisted rope-like wire strands; (d) a flat metal strip, sometimes metal bar of square or rectangular section, forming a rod with sharp edges (called a 'bar twist'); (g) a twisted metal bar of cruciform section, with a convex outer surface: (c) a twisted flat metal strip; (f) a twisted forming a rod with smooth edges (called a `flange twist'). Some rare examples have the terminals in the form of complete animals. A modern replica in traditional form was made, probably by Pasquale Novissimo, for Carlo Giuliano (see GIULIANO FAMILY), c. 1880, with FILIGREE and GRANULATED GOLD.

animal-head brooch. A type of brooch that is penannular and that has the terminals in the form of a head of an animal. Such brooches were of bronze, with enamelling usually either in CIIAMPLEVE or MILLEFIORI style. The most common decorations on the terminals are the stylized palmette, the spherical triangle (the central gap left by three touching spheres), and the spiral. The brooches are Celtic and were made from the second half of the 2nd century Al) to the middle of the 5th. It has been said that they are modelled on a 2nd-century North British penannular bangle. See Howard Kilbride-Jones, Zoomorphic Penannular Brooches (1980).

animal-head ear-ring. A type of EAR-RING that is of tapering PENANNULAR form and that has one terminal, as the larger end, in the form of the head of an animal or sometimes a female human head, or a dolphin. Some examples have, instead of a solid st IANK, a shank made of twisted hollow tube or of wire twisted to form a coil. There is usually a hook at the tapered terminal, to be attached to a loop at the animal's mouth. Some examples have beads threaded along the hoop. Such ear-rings, usually made of gold, were widely used in the eastern Mediterranean region, having been developed in the 2nd century BC in Egypt. Syria, and Cyprus, and continued in Roman times until the 1st century AD.

animal-head necklace. A type of NECKLACE made as a CHAIN, loose-linked or corded, having terminals in the form of animal heads, usually a lion's head, similar to the ANIMAL-HEAD BRACELETS and ANIMAL-HEAD EAR-RINGS. A variation was made with beads or set gemstones instead of links. Such pieces are known as types of HELLENISTIC JEWELRY

animal jewelry. Articles of jewelry whose principal decorative motif is the figure or painting of an animal. Many PENDANTS. BROOCHES, ENSEIGNES. etc., have been so decorated with animals, such as a dog (talbot), monkey, dromedary, lion, camel, elephant, lizard (see LIZARD JEWELRY), bird (see BIRD jEwELRv).dolphin (see DOLPHIN JEWELRY), fly (see FLY JEWELRY), frog (see FROG JEWELRY), butterfly, cock, etc. Pendants of SUMF.RIAN JEWELRY are known in the form of a bull and a goat. Jewelry in the Victorian era was often made with such animal motifs. See BAROQUE PEARL JEWEL.

ankh. An Egyptian symbol of life, in the form of a TAu CROSS with a loop resting on the transverse arm. It combines the male and female symbols of Osiris and Isis and is found held in the hand of certain deities depicted on some TUTANKIIAMUN JEWELRY and other objects from Egypt. Also known as the `Key of Life' and the crux ansata.
anklet. A ring, chain, band or other ornamental form worn around the ankle. Also called an 'ankle ring'. Such pieces were worn by women in Egypt. Greece, and Rome. Examples from India and the Far East are broad and highly ornamented, with suspended discs and bells. Anne of Brittany's Ruby. A polished but irregular ruby weighing 105 carats, now in the Louvre, Paris.

anodyne necklace. A necklace that was used as a charm against illness or pain (especially by babies when teething) in the 18th century. The name is from 'anodyne', a medicine that allays pain.

annular. In the form of an unbroken ring or circle. See PENANNULAR.

antigoritc. One variety of SERPENTINE that is soft, very pale grey to green or brownish-green, sometimes with LAMELLAR inclusions. A source is the Valle d'Antigorio, in Piedmont, Italy. It resembles JADE and is sometimes confused with it.

Antilles pearl. A pearly piece cut from the shell of the sea-snail and sometimes used as a small pearl. It has a nacreous top surface and a yellowish non-nacreous underside. Also called 'oil pearl'.

antique cut. See CUSHION CUT.

Antwerp, John of (fl. c. 1515 50). An Antwerp goldsmith and jeweler whose family name was Van der Cow, but who was usually called John (or Hans) of Andwarpe. Fle settled in London c. 1515, remaining until his death, and was employed extensively by Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex (1485 1540), and by Henry VIII to make and repair jewelry. He was a very close friend of HANS HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER, whose jewelry designs he executed. See L. Cust, 'John of Antwerp', in Burlington Magazine, February 1906, p. 356.

Antwerp rose cut. The same as the BRABANT ROSE CUT.

annulus pronubus (Latin). Literally, betrothal ring. The finger ring used by the Romans as a BETROTHAL RING. It was given by the man as a pledge to his betrothed.

Apache tear. A variety of OBSIDIAN found in tear-like form. Some examples when cut are greyish and are occasionally CHATOYAN I . They are found as pebbles in south-west regions of the United States, and were named after a supposed resemblance to the tears of Apache squaws. 

apatite. A mineral that occasionally produces some crystals that are used as gemstones. It is soft and brittle, and therefore seldom used in jewelry. The colours are varied, including light blue, mauve, yellow, green, and blue. It resembles TOURMALINE but can be readily distinguished. Varieties are ASPARAGUS stone and MOROXITE. A green, CHATOYANT variety, known as 'apatite cat's-eye', is found in Brazil. A number of other countries also provide sources for apatite.

appliqué (French, from appliquer, to put on). A type of decoration made by affixing a design of one material to a base of another, e.g. a design in lacquer attached to metalwork.

apron. A large dress ornament worn by a woman over her garments, usually in the form of network hanging from the waist. Examples from Tibet, dating from the 19th century, were made from pieces of carved human bones.

Austrian Imperial Crown. Front view of crown made in Prague. 1602. Schatzkammer, Hofburg. Vienna.apron-stage pendant. A type of pendant having a protruding area (com-parable to the apron stage of a theatre, i.e. the stage extending out in front of the proscenium arch) upon which is a group of figures in EMAIL EN RONDE BOSSE in front of an enameled backdrop. Such pendants. of unknown origin, have been ascribed to the 16th century.
aquamarine. A variety of BERYL that is transparent and of various shades of blue and blue-green; almost all of the specimens of the preferable sky-blue color are (since 1920) the result of HEAT TREATMENT applied to greenish or yellow-brown beryls. The stones are dichroic, and are usually cut as a BRILLIANT or STEP CUT. They resemble the EMERALD (the chemical composition is identical, as is the hexagonal crystal form) but the stones are paler and, being less rare, are much less valuable.

They also resemble euclase and blue 'FOPAZ, from all of which (as well as from glass imitations and SYNTHETIC GEMSTONES) they can readily be distinguished. There are many sources, but Brazil has produced the finest and some very large specimens, e.g. one found in 1919 weighing 110.2 kg. (243 lb). Some ancient aquamarines were engraved with portraits, e.g. one with a portrait of Julia, (laughter of the Roman Emperor Titus. 'The synthetic stone resembling aquamarine is the blue SYNTHETIC SPINEL. See E:VYAN AQUAMARINE.

aquamarine chrysolite. An undesirable and unnecessary misnomer for a BERYL that is greenish-yellow.

aquamarine topaz. A variety of TOPAZ the colour of which shades toward green. The name is undesirable and unnecessary.

arabesque. A form of decoration of intricately interlaced motifs which in Islamic art was often geometric or angular, and in Renaissance art was composed of flowing curved lines and fanciful intertwining of swags of foliage, fruit, scrolls, and part-foliate figures, being derived from GROTESQUES (grotteschi) based on Nero's frescoes and often found on Italian maiolica. The style was imported into Europe in the late 15th century and was much used in the 16th century as decoration in all the applied arts.

It was a popular form of Moorish decoration, its Spanish version excluding close representations of animal or human figures, those being found there in the work of Christian artists. In 19th-century England such designs were often termed 'Moresques'. Arabesque decoration is found on some jewelry, especially that of the Renaissance, such as the designs of VIRGIL SOLIS,

archaeological jewelry. Articles of jewelry made in the 19th century, inspired by the Etruscan archaeological discoveries, and especially such pieces made by PIO FORTUNATO CASTELLANI and Carlo Giuliano (see GIULIANO FAMILY), the latter while employed in London by ROBERT PHILLIPS. Such jewelry was also made by JOHN BROGDEN.
archer's collar. A type of LIVERY COLI.AR that was the insighe of office of an ancient guild of archers. An example is that of the Netherlands Archers' Shooting Guild, known as the 'Collier du Roi de l'Arc'; it is composed of twelve silver hinged plaques, alternating in design, and having suspended from it the shields of the successive wearers from 1419 to 1826.

archer's pendant. A type of pendant awarded in the Middle Ages to an archer as a marksmanship prize. Archers were formed into companies emulating the orders of knighthood, and winners in competitions were awarded a chain from which was suspended such a pendant, usually in the form of a POPINJAY or the figure of St Sebastian, the patron saint of archers. They were popular in northern Germany, Holland, and Scandinavia.

archer's thumb ring. A type of finger ring worn by an archer so that, when properly used, the flight of the arrow is swifter and more accurate. Such a ring has a projection on one side of the hoop behind which the bow-string is hitched before the arrow is drawn. They have been used for over 2000 years, examples being known from China in the 5th century BC, and later ones from Greece in the 14th century and India in the 17th and 18th centuries. They vary somewhat in form, and many are made of JADE, some being inlaid with gold and set with gemstones.

architectural style. A sculptural style of decoration, suggestive of medieval church architecture, usually found on a PENDANT, in which the piece is in the form of a tabernacle (a canopied niche framed by columns or pilasters supporting an entablature) in which are one or more figures. Such pieces are usually of gold, decorated with polychrome enamelling and square-cut gemstones, and having the figures IN THE ROUND. The pendants are usually of fanciful, irregular shape, but occasionally are circular. Designs for such jewelry were made by ERASMUS HORNICK in Nuremberg in the 1560s. The style is sometimes called 'style cathedrale' or 'tabernacle style'. See CHARITY PENDANT.

Arcot Diamonds. Two pear-shaped diamonds, perfectly matched, weighing together 57.35 carats. They were among five diamonds presented in 1777 by the Nawab of Arcot, in Madras, India, to Queen Charlotte, consort of George 111. Upon her death they were sold by the Crown Jewellers, Rundell & Bridge (see RUNDEI.I., BRIDGE & RUNDELL) and in 1837 were bought by the Marquess of Westminster. They were remounted in 1930 and set in a TIARA (sold in 1959 at Sotheby's, London, to HARRY WINSTON), and are reportedly now privately owned in Texas.

Arizona ruby. A local misnomer for a ruby-coloured PYROPE.

Arizona spine!. A local misnomer for a red or green variety of GARNET.

Ark Locket. A gold LOCKET related to the ARMADA JEWEL. On one side is a hinged lid bearing a similar depiction of the Ark carved in low relief on a mother-of-pearl medallion, encircled by the same motto as on the Armada Jewel. The motto is enamelled on a white ground and surrounded by a band of table-cut rubies within a smooth-edged oval frame which is enamelled in translucent red and green with opaque white; above the frame is an ornamental suspensory ring. On the other side is an oval space for a miniature portrait, encircled by a Latin inscription, 'Per tot discrimina rerum'. The locket has been attributed to an English goldsmith, c. 1600. See JAMES I JEWELRY.

Arkansas diamond. (1) A local misnomer for ROCK CRYSTAL. (2) Any real diamond found in Arkansas, the state producing more diamonds than any other of the United States; diamonds were found in 1906 near Murfreesboro in four pipes, one of which has been called 'The Crater of Diamonds', where the public are permitted to search upon payment of a small daily fee. (3) A diamond, called the 'Arkansas Diamond', discovered on a farm near Searcy, Arkansas, in 1926, and bought by TIFFANY & CO., which still displays it in the rough, weighing 27.21 carats. Other diamonds found in Arkansas include the UNCLE SAM DIAMOND and at least seven others each weighing rough over 3 carats.

Armada (Heneage) Jewel. A gold LOCKET made probably in England, late in 1588, to commemorate the victory of England over the Spanish Armada in July and August of that year. On the front under a convex glass is a profile bust portrait (from the Garter Badge of 1585) of Elizabeth 1 in cast gold on a blue translucent enamel ground, within a separated frame of openwork enamelled in blue, with motifs in green and red, and set with 4 table-cut diamonds and 4 table-cut rubies; at the top is a trefoil suspensory ornament.

The back of the locket is enamelled with an Ark (symbolic of the English Church) securely floating on a stormy sea and beneath a shower from a cloud, with an encircling motto 'Saevas tranquilla per undas' ('Tranquil through stormy seas'), the motto from the Naval Medal of 1588. Within the locket is a miniature portrait of Elizabeth, perhaps by NICHOLAS HILLIARD, dated 1580, later retouched. The inside of the lid is enamelled with the Tudor rose within a wreath and a 1.atin laudatory inscription from the Phoenix Badge of 1574.

The piece is said to have been a gift by the Queen to Sir Thomas Heneage (d. 1595), of Copt Hall, Essex, for services as Treasurer at the time of the Armada; hence it is sometimes called the 'Heneage Jewel'. It was kept in the Heneage family until July 1902 when it was sold at Christie's, London, for £5,250 to the Pierpont Morgan Collection, which in 1935 sold it to Lord Wakefield, who donated it to the Victoria & Albert Museum. See ARK LOCKET.

 animal-head bracelet. Gold with lion's-head terminals and shank of metal strip with convex outer surface. 4th/3rd centuries BC. Museo Nazionale, Taranto, Italy.
armilla (or armill). An archaeological term used to designate an ARMLET, or sometimes a bracelet, usually one worn by royalty. Such pieces were worn in ancient times in the Orient and the Near East as emblems of sovereignty, and continued to be used later, especially by the Germanic peoples from the 7th century. In England they have been long used, but as part of the coronation REGALIA only since 1100. Among outstanding examples are:

(1) One from the von Hirsch Collection sold at Sotheby's, London, on 22 June 1978, for £1,100,000 plus 10%. It is a curved band of gilt copper decorated in CHAMPLEVE enamel, with a scene showing the Crucifixion with other figures. all in brilliant colours and with accenting in NIELLO. It has been attributed to a Mosan or Rhenish source, C. 1165, either Godefroid de Claire or a Mosan enameller in whose workshop NICOLAS OF VERDUN was trained.

Together with a companion piece in the Louvre depicting the Resurrection, it is thought to have been part of the Imperial Regalia of Frederick I (Barbarossa), 1152 90, and to have been presented to him by the Russian Prince Andrei Bogoliubski (1111 74), whose embassy visited the Imperial Court at Aachen in 1165. It was later given to the cathedral at Vladimir, near Moscow, and remained in Russia until c. 1933, having been in the Hermitage Museum from 1917.

(2) Two pairs among the British CROWN JEWELS: one, of enamelled gold, made for the coronation of Charles II but not used, and another presented by the Commonwealth to Elizabeth 11 upon her coronation in 1953.

armillary ring. See ASTRONOMICAL RING.

armlet. An ornament worn on the upper arm, made in various materials. forms, and styles in different regions and cultures. Some worn in Egypt during the XVIllth Dynasty (c. 1552-1296 BC) were hollow bands of gold sheet beaten into a circular shape, the ends soldered, and the join sealed with another strip. In India in the Mughal period (1526 1857) the armlet (called a BAZU BAND) worn by men (the Emperor and nobility) consisted of a gold ornament (sometimes three-sectioned) attached at both ends to a long, encircling, silken cord. See ARNIILLA; BANGt.E; BRACELET: OXUS ARMLET: SPIRAL ARMLET: SUSSEX ARM.RING.

Art Deco. A decorative style that originated in France in the 1920s and 1930s in protest against the ART NOUVEAU style and later art movements, and that was popularized in the United States. Scorned by many in its early period, it reacquired some popularity in the 1960s and 1970s. The style emphasized abstract designs and geometric patterns. Examples are found in many branches of the decorative arts, including jewelry. The name is derived from 'L' Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes', held in Paris in 1925.

Art Nouveau. The style of decoration current in the 1890s and early 1900s, the name being derived from a gallery for interior decoration opened by Samuel Bing in Paris in 1896, called the 'Maison de l'Art Nouveau'. It was introduced in England c. 1890, mainly as a product of the movement started by William Morris and the Pre-Raphaelites, which spread to the Continent and America. It came to an end with the outbreak of World War I.

The same style in Germany was called jugendstil, after a magazine called Die jugend (Youth), and in Italy Floreale or Stile Liberty (after the London store that featured it). Applicable to all the decorative arts, it was adapted to jewelry in England and on the Continent. The style resulted from a revolt against the rigid styles of the previously mass-produced wares and a philosophy that sought to revive the craft movement and aestheticism in art. It featured free-flowing, curving lines with asymmetrical natural motifs, such as intertwining floral patterns, butterflies and dragonflies, and ethereal, human, female faces, greatly influenced by Japanese art.

It used gemstones to emphasize their beauty, preferring pearls and CABOCHON opals and moonstones rather than faceted stones, and employed colourful enamelling. The pieces include pendants, necklaces, and elaborate HAIR ORNAMENTS. Eventually its own extravagances led to its demise, c. 1910-14. Among its leading exponents in France were RENE LALIQUE. MAISON VE.VER. GEORGES FOUQUET, and LUCIEN GAILLARD, in Belgium Philippe Wolfers (see WOLFERS FRERES), and in Vienna Josef Hoffmann (1870-1955). In England the leaders were CHARLLS K. ASHBEF. and HENRY WILSON, and in Scotland Charles Rennie Mackintosh. See Graham Hughes, Art Nouveaujewellery (1966).

articulated. Having movable parts, e.g. a brooch or pendant in the form of a fish made with joined sections that permit movement in a swimming manner, or a SNAKE BRACE:S:1 (or necklace) having a body made of flexible sections. See ARTICULATED BRACELET: FISH JEWELRY: MIXTEC JEWELRY: TOR ABBEY JEWEL.

articulated bracelet. A rigid, circular bracelet or BANGLE made with one section that opens on a hinge to permit it to be placed on the wrist.

artificial pearl. See IMITATION PEARL.

artist-designer. A painter or sculptor who also made designs for jewelry, to be executed by professional craftsmen and jewellers, such as HANS HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER and ALBRECHT DORF.R. Among those of the 20th century are Georges Braque, Salvador Dali, Jean Arp, Jean Cocteau, Andre Derain, Jean Dubuffet, Max Ernst, Alberto Giacometti, Pablo Picasso, Man Ray, and Yves Tanguy. See DESIGNER; DESIGNER MAKER.

Ashanti jewelry. Articles of jewelry made in the kingdom of Ashanti, in central Gold Coast (now part of Ghana) in West Africa during the 18th/19th centuries. Similar jewelry was also made in the neighbouring regions of the Anyi and Baoule, but it is all usually grouped as 'Akan' ware, as Akan is the common language of the three regions. Many articles were made of the abundant local supply of gold, but its wearing was restricted to the king and high dignitaries; all gold dust acquired privately could be made into jewelry only with the king's consent and by controlled artisans.

Much was made by skilful use of the CIRE PERDUE process, which had been introduced possibly as early as the 13th century. Pieces were elaborately decorated with REPOUSSE work and CHASING. Some articles were made by the application of gold F011, over a wooden core. The articles included discs worn as official insignia, and also PECTORALS (akrafokonmu), bracelets, finger rings, TOE RINGS, and TALISMANS, some decorated with zoomorphic subjects IN THE ROUND.

Ashbee, Charles Robert (1863-1942). An English designer of jewelry who was an important figure in the promotion of the ART NOUVEAU style in England. Having been an architect and goldsmith, he became in the 1880s interested in jewelry and a leader of the Arts and Crafts Movement. In 1888 he founded the Guild and School of Handicraft in London but in 1895 the school closed; in 1898 he registered the mark of the Guild of Handicraft which in 1902 moved to Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, but closed in 1908. In 1912 he published Silverware and Jewellery.

His jewelry designs, which were executed by the Guild, were mainly for articles of silver ornamented with such inexpensive translucent gemstones as turquoise, moonstone, and opal, and also with BLISTER PEARLS, often using flowers and a peacock as his motifs. His influence was important in developing Art Nouveau jewelry, especially at Liberty & Co., and at the Wiener .Werkstatte. His marks were C R A from 1896, and after 1898 G 0 H Ltd.

asparagus stone. A variety of APATITE that is yellowish-green.

Amherst Broochassaying. The process of testing the purity of metal in an article, e.g. ascertaining the proportion of GOLD or sit.vEtt in relation to other metals that are constituents of the ALLOY, but without making a complete analysis. Assaying has been legally required in Great Britain since c. 1300 for articles of gold or silver (since 1975 for platinum). The process formerly involved rubbing with a TOUCHSTONE, but today technical procedures are used to test the scrappings of each part of an article submitted; gold is tested by cupellation, silver by the 'volumetric method', and in both cases the content must be established to the nearest 0.1%. When an article contains a metal of two different qualities (e.g. 22- and 18-carat gold), the assaying applies only to that of lower quality, and the mark ignores the metal of higher quality.

Certain articles are exempted, such as pieces of a delicate nature (e.g. FILI(;RE.E) or low monetary value, as well as pins and springs that must be of a strong metal; for CHAINS, all links are assayed but the mark is dispensed with. Assaying was done in ancient Egypt and Rome, and has been carried out on the Continent for centuries; there is no governmental assaying of jewelry in the United States.

assembled stone. See DOUBLET; TRIPLET.

Assur-bani-pal Bracelet. A gold, hinged, rigid bracelet with an applied decoration depicting, after an Assyrian relief, Assur-bani-pal (d. 626 BC?), King of Assyria, returning from a lion hunt. It was made by JOHN BROGDEN, C. 1851.

Astarte pendant. A type of gold, amuletic pendant depicting in stylized manner the nude figure of Astarte, the Canaanite goddess of fertility. beauty, and love; she was the most important Phoenician goddess, corresponding to the Greek Aphrodite. Examples are one found at Tell el-Abu' (see ABUL HOARD), now belonging to the Israel Department of Antiquities and exhibited at the Israel Museum, one belonging to the Ashmolean Museum. Oxford, and one in the British Museum.

asteria. A gemstone that exhibits ASTERISM. It is best seen in the STAR RUBY and the STAR SAPPHIRE, including the synthetic varieties. Also called a 'star stone'.

asterism. An optical phenomenon of a star-like figure that is seen in some crystals by reflected light (see F.PIAsTERism) or transmitted light (see DIASTERISM). An example is the 6-ray (sometimes 4-ray, 8-ray or 12-ray) star-like figure that is observed by reflected light in some gemstones (especially the STAR RUBY and STAR SAPPHIRE) when cut EN CABOCHON in such a manner that the greatest thickness of the stone lies parallel to the vertical axis of the crystal.

The effect is caused by the reflection of light from a series of microscopic fibrous inclusions or small canals lying within the crystal parallel to the prism faces and arranged in three directions that intersect, usually at angles of 60*. Such stars are also seen in some other gemstones, e.g. BERYL. ALMANDINE. STAR OPAL, ROSE QUARTZ. A stone showing asterism is known as an ASTERIA or a 'star stone'.

astronomical ring. A type of SCIENTIFIC RING composed of hoops that swivel open to form an astronomical (armillary) sphere, one or more of the hoops being inscribed with the signs of the zodiac and the planets. The skeleton sphere is formed by 2 outer hoops that swivel, and within the sphere are 2 to 4 smaller hoops that swivel on a different axis. All the inner hoops are concealed when the ring is closed. Examples of such rings were made in Germany in the 16t11/17th centuries. One is mentioned as owned by Touchstone in Shakespeare's As You Like It. Although sometimes called an 'astrolabe ring', they are not devices for ascertaining the time.

Augustus Cameo. A CAMEO carved with a profile portrait of the Roman Emperor Augustus (63 BC-AD 14), of which there are several examples, e.g. (I) ST HILARY JEWEL; (2) a large unmounted cameo (in the British Museum) carved in three-layer SARDONYX, attributed to the gem-engraver Dioskorides, 1st century AD, with the Emperor wearing the aegis with the Gorgon's head and around his brow a golden DIADEM set with two small cameos and gemstones; the diadem is medieval (restored in the 18th century), replacing a simple fillet, and the piece was probably set originally in a pendant or a brooch. 

aureole. A decorative feature in the form of a ring or an emanation of rays in oval shape that surrounds the representation of the whole body of a sacred figure; also called a mandorla and, when having pointed ends, a vesica piscis. It is a type of nimbus, which term also includes a HALO.

Austrian Imperial Crown. The CROWN made for Rudolf II, King of Hungary and Bohemia, after he became Holy Roman Emperor in 1576. It is in the form of a gold circlet over which there is a single gold arch surmounted by a small cross; above this is a large, uncut, egg-shaped sapphire. Its main feature is a pair of curved, triangular, gold panels on the sides that rise to a point to form a mitre-shaped cap and that are decorated in bas-relief depicting four scenes involving Rudolf.

Around the circlet are eight upright fleurs-de-lis. All parts are richly studded with gemstones and fringed with pearls. The crown was made in 1602 by Jan Vermeyen at the workshop of Rudolf at Flradschin, Prague. It was worn by the successors of Rudolf as emperor, but no one was ever crowned with it; in 1804 it was designated by Emperor Francis I as the official Austrian Imperial Crown, but it was never so worn. It is kept now in the Schatzkammer of the Hofburg at Vienna.

Austrian Yellow. The same as the FLORENTINE DIAMOND, also called the 'Tuscany Diamond'.

Austrias, Jewel of the. A jewel (known also as the joyel rico) that was created for the Royal Family of Austria in the early 17th century and is shown in a portrait of Margaret of Austria who was married in 1599 to Philip III of Spain. Its principal ornament is the square-cut diamond known as the Estanque (bought by Philip II for Isabel of Valois), below which is suspended IA PEREGRINA. The diamond was in a gold setting with flowers and fruit in relief and enamels of red, black and white. The jewel was also shown as worn by the Queen in a portrait by Velasquez.

Ave. One of the small BEADS on a ROSARY, of which there are ten grouped in each DECADE between a PATERNOSTER and a GLORIA, by which the reciting of Ave Marias is counted. See DECADE RING.

aventurescence. The effect of showing glittering reflections from internal plates or flakes of mica, HEMATITE, or other very small crystals, as shown by .AVENTURINE QUARTZ, AVENITIRINE FELDSPAR, and mOONsToNE, as well as by aventurine glass (goldstone). See ADULARESCENCE; SCHILLF.R.

Ankletaventurine feldspar. A gemstone that strongly resembles AVENTURINE QUARTZ. It appears to glow, suggesting self-illumination, with internal yellowish or reddish beams, due to reflection from INCLUSIONS of thin flakes of an iron mineral (tiEmATrrE or goethite) scattered within the stone. It can be distinguished from aventurine quartz by its lower HARDNESS and often by the presence of parallel striations. It is usually cut EN CABOCHON. It is also called 'sunstone',

aventurine quartz. A variety of massive QUARTZ that is translucent or opaque, and spangled throughout with scales of mica, I lEmATITE, or other flaky mineral giving a spangled appearance to a polished surface when seen by reflected light. Its colour is yellow, green, grey. or reddish-brown. Although large opaque pieces are made into vases and bowls. small specimens are cut with a flat or slightly rounded surface and made into rings and brooches. The green stones are sometimes similar in appearance to green JADE and to MALACHITE. The principal sources of green aventurine quartz (sometimes incorrectly called `Chinese jade' or 'Indian jade') are China, Brazil, and India; it is often carved in China. See AvENTuRESCENCE.

Averbode, Pectoral Cross of Abbot of. A gold PECTORAL CROSS made in two sections to contain a relic. It is decorated with black CHAMPLEVE enamel and pendent pearls; on the front there is a smaller crucifix of bright gold with the figure in EMAIL EN RONDE BOSSE, and on the reverse there is a coat of arms at the crossing and an inscription on the lower limb. It was made in 1562 from a design by HANS COLLAER"I"EHE ELDER for the Abbot of Averbode, near Malines, Belgium.

awabi pearl. The Japanese name for the ABALONE PEARL.

awaw (Egyptian). A type of honorific BANGLE or ARMLET made in the form of a gold hollow band. Such bangles were made by beating into circular shape on a wooden ring a strip of thin gold sheet equal to Ow length of the external circumference of the proposed bangle and then soldering the two ends so as to form a three-sided hoop with the inner face open; the open inner face was then closed with a thin, gold strip that was soldered to the edges of the hoop. They were made during the XVIII th Dynasty, c. 1552 1296 BC.

axe god. An article of PRE-COLUMBIAN JEWELRY shaped as though carved from an axe or celt, having the upper part carved as a low-relief, stylized, anthropomorphic figure and the lower part as a blade. Such pieces, usually made of JADEEEE, have a pierced hole for suspension as a pendant and were made mainly in Costa Rica. Their average height is about 10 cm but they range from 3 to 26 cm. See PRE.COLUMBIAN JADE JEWELRY

Aztec jewelry. Articles of PRE-COLUMBIAN JEWELRY made by the Aztec Indians, who came from east-central Mexico and c. 1325 founded Tenochtitlan (the site of present-day Mexico City), absorbed the culture of the Toltec and Maya peoples, and developed a high degree of civilization until their ruler Montezuma was conquered by the Spaniards under Hernando Cortes in 1520.

Gifts to Cortes (see MONTEZUMA'S HEAD BREISS) included gold necklaces decorated with gemstones and gold bells, and articulated gold animals and fish; other articles made by the Aztecs included bracelets, ear rings, and nose ornaments. Strict regulations prescribed who in the hierarchy was permitted to wear the jewelry. Few specimens survive, as an estimated 30 tons (about 30,000 kg.) of gold jewelry were melted by the Spaniards for the gold content. See MEXICAN JEWELRY.

azurite. A mineral that is normally opaque and azure-blue. It is misleadingly called 'blue malachite' to distinguish it from 'green malachite'. It is sometimes used in jewelry in flat-top pieces. See CHESSYLITE: M A LACH ITE.

Writer- Thames And Hudson
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